Based on research conducted by organizational scientists dating to the 1940s, the authors identified five important precursors that determine the degree of buy-in by organizational change recipients. The authors assembled these independent precursors into a framework labeled organizational change recipients' beliefs and developed a psychometrically sound self-report questionnaire that can be used to gauge progress of organizational change efforts. The authors describe a series of four studies used to develop a 24-item assessment tool that can be administered at any stage of the change process. The information obtained can serve as (a) a barometer of the degree of buy-in among change recipients, (b) an assessment of deficiencies in specific beliefs that can adversely impact the success of an organizational change, and (c) a basis for planning and executing actions to enhance buy-in among organizational change recipients.
"The conclusion of this surveys stratify the perception factor into critical intrinsic factors (commitment, belief) and external factors (lean work method, communication) which affect the success of the lean implementation from workers' point of view and suggest that the possibility of the lean transformation success, is on the hands of employees' commitment levels, beliefs, communication and work methods.  Armenakis et al.  suggested that the belief is an opinion or a conviction about the truth of something that may not be readily obvious or subject to systematic verification. David et al. suggest that employee perceptions can be influenced by Belief, Commitment, Work method and Communication. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The concept of lean manufacturing was developed for maximizing the resource utilization through minimization of waste, later on lean was formulated in response to the fluctuating and competitive business environment. Due to rapidly changing business environment the organizations are forced to face challenges and complexities. Any organization whether manufacturing or service oriented to survive may ultimately depend on its ability to systematically and continuously respond to these changes for enhancing the product value. Therefore value adding process is necessary to achieve this perfection; hence implementing a lean manufacturing system is becoming a core competency for any type of organizations to sustain. The majority of the study focuses on single aspect of lean element, only very few focuses on more than one aspect of lean elements, but for the successful implementation of lean the organisation had to focuses on all the aspects such as Value Stream Mapping (VSM),Cellular Manufacturing (CM), U-line system, Line Balancing, Inventory control, Single Minute Exchange of Dies (SMED), Pull System, Kanban, Production Levelling etc., In this paper, an attempt has been made to develop a lean route map for the organization to implement the lean manufacturing system. Analyses of the exploratory survey results are summarized in this paper to illustrate the implementation sequence of lean elements in volatile business environment and the finding of this review was synthesized to develop a unified theory for implementation of lean elements.
"This study aimed to find out how readiness for change, change beliefs and resistance to change exist between extension personnel in the New Valley governorate about mobile extension, and to determine which of the two proposed models most fit with the current study. A variety of scales were employed to collect the data consisting of the organizational change readiness scale (Conner, 2005), the organizational change beliefs scale (Armenakis et al., 2007) and the resistance to change scale (Giangreco, 2002). The response format was a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to find out how readiness for change, change beliefs and resistance to change exist between extension personnel in the New Valley governorate about mobile extension, and to determine which of the two proposed models fit with the current study. Data were collected from 103 personnel or 85.1% of the total number of extension personnel in this governorate (121 Personnel) by questionnaire. The three scales used in this study pointed out that the respondents are ready for implementing the mobile extension initiative, they have the adherent beliefs for this change, and their support to the change is greater than their resistance to it. The various indices of overall goodness of fit lent sufficient support for the results to be an acceptable representation of model (1), which indicates that the respondents develop change beliefs around what they perceived about the change (readiness), then they form their behavior of either support of or resist to the change.
"The emotional responses of staff as a result of service changes have also had little attention. Understanding how staff perceive change may be of particular use since perceptions can influence the successful outcomes of changes
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Health services are subject to frequent changes, yet there has been insufficient research to address how staff working within these services perceive the climate for implementation. Staff perceptions, particularly of barriers to change, may affect successful implementation and the resultant quality of care. This study measures staff perceptions of barriers to change in acute mental healthcare. We identify whether occupational status and job satisfaction are related to these perceptions, as this might indicate a target for intervention that could aid successful implementation. As there were no available instruments capturing staff perceptions of barriers to change, we created a new measure (VOCALISE) to assess this construct.
All nursing staff from acute in-patient settings in one large London mental health trust were eligible. Using a participatory method, a nurse researcher interviewed 32 staff to explore perceptions of barriers to change. This generated a measure through thematic analyses and staff feedback (N = 6). Psychometric testing was undertaken according to standard guidelines for measure development (N = 40, 42, 275). Random effects models were used to explore the associations between VOCALISE, occupational status, and job satisfaction (N = 125).
VOCALISE was easy to understand and complete, and showed acceptable reliability and validity. The factor analysis revealed three underlying constructs: 'confidence,' 'de-motivation' and 'powerlessness.' Staff with negative perceptions of barriers to change held more junior positions, and had poorer job satisfaction. Qualitatively, nursing assistants expressed a greater sense of organisational unfairness in response to change.
VOCALISE can be used to explore staff perceptions of implementation climate and to assess how staff attitudes shape the successful outcomes of planned changes. Negative perceptions were linked with poor job satisfaction and to those occupying more junior roles, indicating a negative climate for implementation in those groups. Staff from these groups may therefore need special attention prior to implementing changes in mental health settings.
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