Risk Factors for Severe Acute Malnutrition in Children below 5 y of Age in India: A Case-Control Study
ABSTRACT To determine the possible risk factors for severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in children below 5 y admitted in a hospital in north India.
This case-control study was conducted in a medical college hospital in children below 5 y of age. All cases of SAM (diagnosed as per WHO definition) between 6 and 59 mo of age were compared with age-matched controls with weight for height above -2SD of WHO 2006 growth standards. Data regarding socio-demographic parameters, feeding practices and immunization were compared between the groups by univariable and multivariable logistic regression models.
A total of 76 cases and 115 controls were enrolled. Among the 14 factors compared, maternal illiteracy, daily family income less than Rs. 200, large family size, lack of exclusive breast feeding in first 6 mo, bottle feeding, administration of pre-lacteals, deprivation of colostrum and incomplete immunization were significant risk factors for SAM. Regarding complementary feeding, it was the consistency, rather than the age of initiation, frequency and variety which showed a significant influence on occurrence of SAM. Multivariate analysis revealed that the risk of SAM was independently associated with 6 factors, namely, illiteracy among mothers, incomplete immunization, practice of bottle feeding, consistency of complementary feeding, deprivation of colostrum and receipt of prelacteals at birth.
The present study identifies certain risk factors which need to be focused on during health planning and policy making related to children with SAM in India.
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinico-epidemiological profile, pattern of infections, feeding practices, socio-demographic risk factors and outcome of hospitalized children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) and severe acute malnutrition (SAM). METHODS: Cases (children aged 1-60 mo with SAM or MAM) and controls (children with weight for height z score more than -1 SD) were recruited from November 2011 through July 2013. Overall, 126 cases and 126 controls were included. RESULTS: Only 33 % of malnourished children (cases) were exclusively breast fed. Among controls, 71 % were exclusively breast fed for the first 6 mo after birth. Most cases had associated infections (p 0.004) and anemia (p < 0.001). ROC curve revealed 120 mm mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) as the best cut off for predicting SAM. Mothers' education, pre-lacteal feeds and co-morbidities were independent predictors of malnutrition (R2 = 22.1 %) by logistic regression. CONCLUSIONS: Though 11.5 cm MUAC has been mentioned by WHO as the cut off for identifying SAM, a higher cut off (12 cm) may be required to use it as a screening tool. Mothers' education, pre-lacteal feeds and co-morbidities were found to be independent determinants for malnutrition in the present patient population, indicating the need towards a targeted approach for modifying these factors.The Indian Journal of Pediatrics 02/2015; · 0.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The authors studied the outcome of 108 infants < 6 mo with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) admitted in the Nutritional Rehabilitation Centres (NRC) at a teaching hospital. The most common symptom that the children presented with, was acute diarrhoea (35.2 %) followed by failure to gain weight (26.9 %). Seventy five (69.4 %) infants were cured after nutritional rehabilitation and 29 (26.8 %) were non responders. Fifty two (48 %) infants showed good weight gain after proper counseling or supplementary suckling technique alone.The Indian Journal of Pediatrics 11/2013; 81(8). DOI:10.1007/s12098-013-1285-3 · 0.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Poor breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices may contribute to childhood malnutrition in the developing world. Objective: The objective was to examine the determinants of timely initiation of complementary feeding among Nigerian children. Materials and Methods: Using a cross-sectional design, children aged 6-24 months were surveyed in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital. Children with timely initiation of complementary feeding (6-8 months) were compared with children with untimely initiation of complementary feeding early (< 6 months and > 8 months) for clinical and social characteristics using both bivariate and multivariate analysis. Results: Of 156 children, 41%, 53.8%, and 5.1% had timely, early and delayed initiation of complementary feeding. Complementary feeding was initiated with processed cereals (44.8%), locally prepared maize gruel (32.1%) and mashed family diet (23.1%). Bivariate analysis showed significant association between timely initiation of complementary and orthodox maternity care, no prelacteal feeding, exclusive breastfeeding, no siblings and first birth order. Parental education was not associated with timely initiation of complementary feeding. Multivariate analysis identified orthodox maternity care, exclusive breastfeeding and no siblings as independent predictors of timely initiation of complementary feeding. Conclusion: Complementary feeding is most frequently initiated earlier than 6 months in this population. Good breastfeeding practices may influence timely initiation of complementary feeding. Interventions should be targeted at the entire population irrespective of educational and socioeconomic status.Nigerian journal of clinical practice 11/2014; 17(6):785-90. DOI:10.4103/1119-3077.144399 · 0.41 Impact Factor