Engineered magnetic hybrid nanoparticles with enhanced relaxivity for tumor imaging.
ABSTRACT Clinically used contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suffer by the lack of specificity; short circulation time; and insufficient relaxivity. Here, a one-step combinatorial approach is described for the synthesis of magnetic lipid-polymer (hybrid) nanoparticles (MHNPs) encapsulating 5 nm ultra-small super-paramagnetic iron oxide particles (USPIOs) and decorated with Gd(3+) ions. The MHNPs comprise a hydrophobic poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) core, containing up to ∼5% USPIOs (w/w), stabilized by lipid and polyethylene glycol (PEG). Gd(3+) ions are directly chelated to the external lipid monolayer. Three different nanoparticle configurations are presented including Gd(3+) chelates only (Gd-MHNPs); USPIOs only (Fe-MHNPs); and the combination thereof (MHNPs). All three MHNPs exhibit a hydrodynamic diameter of about 150 nm. The Gd-MHNPs present a longitudinal relaxivity (r1 = 12.95 ± 0.53 (mm s)(-1)) about four times larger than conventional Gd-based contrast agents (r1 = 3.4 (mm s)(-1)); MHNPs have a transversal relaxivity of r2 = 164.07 ± 7.0 (mm s)(-1), which is three to four times larger than most conventional systems (r2 ∼ 50 (mm s)(-1)). In melanoma bearing mice, elemental analysis for Gd shows about 3% of the injected MHNPs accumulating in the tumor and 2% still circulating in the blood, at 24 h post-injection. In a clinical 3T MRI scanner, MHNPs provide significant contrast confirming the observed tumor deposition. This approach can also accommodate the co-loading of hydrophobic therapeutic compounds in the MHNP core, paving the way for theranostic systems.
- SourceAvailable from: James F Leary[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: While nanoparticles are usually designed for targeted drug delivery, they can also simultaneously provide diagnostic information by a variety of in vivo imaging methods. These diagnostic capabilities make use of specific properties of nanoparticle core materials. Near-infrared fluorescent probes provide optical detection of cells targeted by real-time nanoparticle-distribution studies within the organ compartments of live, anesthetized animals. By combining different imaging modalities, we can start with deep-body imaging by magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography, and by using optical imaging, get down to the resolution required for real-time fluorescence-guided surgery.International Journal of Nanomedicine 01/2014; 9:711-726. · 4.20 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hybrid PET/MRI scanners have the potential to provide fundamental molecular, cellular, and anatomic information essential for optimizing therapeutic and surgical interventions. However, their full utilization is currently limited by the lack of truly multi-modal contrast agents capable of exploiting the strengths of each modality. Here, we report on the development of long-circulating positron-emitting magnetic nanoconstructs (PEM) designed to image solid tumors for combined PET/MRI. PEMs are synthesized by a modified nano-precipitation method mixing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), lipids, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains with 5 nm iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIOs). PEM lipids are coupled with 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) and subsequently chelated to 64Cu. PEMs show a diameter of 140 ± 7 nm and a transversal relaxivity r2 of 265.0 ± 10.0 (mM × s)−1, with a r2/r1 ratio of 123. Using a murine xenograft model bearing human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231), intravenously administered PEMs progressively accumulate in tumors reaching a maximum of 3.5 ± 0.25% ID/g tumor at 20 h post-injection. Correlation of PET and MRI signals revealed non-uniform intratumoral distribution of PEMs with focal areas of accumulation at the tumor periphery. These long-circulating PEMs with high transversal relaxivity and tumor accumulation may allow for detailed interrogation over multiple scales in a clinically relevant setting.Small 03/2014; · 7.82 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) accumulate at disease sites with the aid of magnetic fields; biodegradable MNPs can be designed to facilitate drug delivery, influence disease diagnostics, facilitate tissue regeneration and permit protein purification. Because of their limited toxicity, MNPs are widely used in theranostics, simultaneously facilitating diagnostics and therapeutics. To realize therapeutic end points, iron oxide nanoparticle cores (5-30 nm) are encapsulated in a biocompatible polymer shell with drug cargos. Although limited, the toxic potential of MNPs parallels magnetite composition, along with shape, size and surface chemistry. Clearance is hastened by the reticuloendothelial system. To surmount translational barriers, the crystal structure, particle surface and magnetic properties of MNPs need to be optimized. With this in mind, we provide a comprehensive evaluation of advancements in MNP synthesis, functionalization and design, with an eye towards bench-to-bedside translation.Nanomedicine 03/2014; · 5.26 Impact Factor