Transcytosis shuts the door for an unwanted guest.
ABSTRACT Penetration resistance is a well-described plant defense process, in which SOLUBLE N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE-FACTOR ATTACHMENT RECEPTOR (SNARE) proteins have essential roles in membrane fusion processes. Strong focal accumulation of these proteins at the site of attack by powdery mildew fungi has been considered important for their function. However, recent insight indicates that transcytosis, leading to the formation of exosomes, has an important role in this defense and, furthermore, that strong accumulation of these SNARE proteins with the exosomes is biologically irrelevant. These findings alter the established function of SNAREs in penetration resistance; therefore, in this opinion, we propose that PEN1 and its SNARE partners function on an endosome in their control of penetration resistance.
SourceAvailable from: Takashi Ueda[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Endosomal trafficking plays integral roles in various eukaryotic cell activities. In animal cells, a member of the RAB GTPase family, RAB5, is a key regulator of various endosomal functions. In addition to orthologs of animal RAB5, plants harbor the plant-specific RAB5 group, the ARA6 group, which is conserved in land plant lineages. In Arabidopsis thaliana, ARA6 and conventional RAB5 act in distinct endosomal trafficking pathways; ARA6 mediates trafficking from endosomes to the plasma membrane, whereas conventional RAB5 acts in endocytic and vacuolar trafficking pathways. ARA6 is also required for normal salt and osmotic stress tolerance, although the functional link between ARA6 and stress tolerance remains unclear. In this study, we investigated ARA6 function in stress tolerance by monitoring broad-scale changes in gene expression in the ara6 mutant. A comparison of the expression profiles between wild-type and ara6-1 plants revealed that the expression of the Qua-Quine Starch (QQS) gene was significantly affected by the ara6-1 mutation. QQS is involved in starch homeostasis, consistent with the starch content decreasing in the ara6 mutants to approximately 60% of that of the wild-type plant. In contrast, the free and total glucose content increased in the ara6 mutants. Moreover, the proliferation of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 was repressed in ara6 mutants, which could be attributed to the elevated sugar content. These results suggest that ARA6 is responsible for starch and sugar homeostasis, most likely through the function of QQS. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.Plant and Cell Physiology 02/2015; DOI:10.1093/pcp/pcv029 · 4.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: As in yeast and mammalian cells, novel unconventional protein secretion (UPS) or unconventional membrane trafficking pathways are now known to operate in plants. UPS in plants is generally associated with stress conditions such as pathogen attack, but little is known about its underlying mechanism and function. Here, we present an update on the current knowledge of UPS in the plants in terms of its transport pathways, possible functions and its relationship to autophagy.Current Opinion in Cell Biology 06/2014; 29C:107-115. DOI:10.1016/j.ceb.2014.05.008 · 8.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Obligate biotrophs, such as the powdery mildew pathogens, deliver effectors to the host cell and obtain nutrients from the infection site. The interface between the plant host and the biotrophic pathogen thus represents a major battleground for plant-pathogen interactions. Increasing evidence shows that cellular trafficking plays an important role in plant immunity. Here, we report that Arabidopsis thaliana ENHANCED DISEASE RESISTANCE4 (EDR4) plays a negative role in resistance to powdery mildew and that the enhanced disease resistance in edr4 mutants requires salicylic acid signaling. EDR4 mainly localizes to the plasma membrane and endosomal compartments. Genetic analyses show that EDR4 and EDR1 function in the same genetic pathway. EDR1 and EDR4 accumulate at the penetration site of powdery mildew infection, and EDR4 physically interacts with EDR1, recruiting EDR1 to the fungal penetration site. In addition, EDR4 interacts with CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAIN2 (CHC2), and edr4 mutants show reduced endocytosis rates. Taken together, our data indicate that EDR4 associates with CHC2 and modulates plant immunity by regulating the relocation of EDR1 in Arabidopsis. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.