Relationship of the angiographic extent of peripheral arterial disease with coronary artery involvement

Cardiology Department, Rize University School of Medicine, Rize, Turkey.
Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association (Impact Factor: 0.41). 07/2012; 62(7):644-9.
Source: PubMed


To determine the co-incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients investigated for peripheral arterial disease (PAD), and to establish the relationship between the risk factors in the two groups of patients.
The prospective study, done from January 2005 and April 2009, at the Cardiology Clinic of Rize Education and Research Hospital, Rize and John F. Kennedy Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, had a cohort of 307 patients who had been diagnosed with peripheral artery disease either clinically or by ultrasonography for the arteries of the lower extremities and had undergone coronary angiography and peripheral angiography in the same or different sessions. The patients were evaluated in terms of age, gender and atherosclerotic risk factors. Relationship of the extent of peripheral arterial disease with coronary artery involvement was investigated.
Of the 307 patients, 251 (81.8%) were male, and the mean age was 62.1 +/- 9.5 years. In the study population, 178 (58.0%) patients were diagnosed as hypertensive, 84 (27.4%) patients were diabetic, 18 (5.9%) patients had a family history of coronary artery disease, 111 (36.2%) were smokers, 149 (48.5%) were hypercholesterolemic, and 20 (6.5%) had cerebrovascular/carotid disease. In 92.3% of patients with peripheral arterial disease, various levels of coronary stenosis (P = 0.007) was noticed. Hypertension was a risk factor for both coronary and peripheral artery diseases (p = 0.012 and 0.027, respectively). Univariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the presence of peripheral artery disease was related to the coronary variety (Odds ratio [OR]: 6, 95% CI: 1.4-25.5, P = 0.016) and severe cases (diffused atherosclerotic stenosis and complete occlusion in all segments) significantly indicated the presence of some coronary pathology (OR: 8, 95% CI: 1.7-37.4, P = 0.008). This relationship maintained its significance after adjustment for age, gender, hypercholesterolaemia, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, family history, and the presence of cerebrovascular/carotid disease (p = 0.010).
Peripheral coronary artery diseases had similar risk factors. The extent of peripheral arterial disease observed during peripheral lower extremity angiography was significantly associated with the presence and severity of coronary artery disease. Particular attention should be focused on the possibility of coronary artery disease in patients with established and extensive peripheral arterial disease. Non-invasive, as well as invasive tests, should be performed to decrease morbidity and mortality risk of such patients.

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