Evaluación diagnóstica y diagnóstico diferencial del hiperparatiroidismo primario
ABSTRACT Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is characterized by the autonomous production of parathyroid hormone (PTH), in which there is hypercalcemia or normal-high serum calcium levels, in the presence of elevated or inappropriately normal serum PTH concentrations.
Exceptionally, in symptomatic patients, a diagnosis can be established on the basis of clinical data. PHPT must always be evaluated in patients with clinical histories of nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis, osseous pain, subperiosteal resorption, and pathologic fractures, as well as in those with osteoporosis-osteopenia on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), a personal history of neck irradiation, or a family history of multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome (types 1 or 2).
Diagnosis of PHPT is biochemical. Asymptomatic hypercalcemia (total serum calcium corrected by albumin), without guiding signs or symptoms, is the most frequent manifestation of the disease. For the differential diagnosis, PTH1-84 must be measured, as well as phosphate, chloride, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and calcium-to-creatinine clearance. Suppressed or inappropriately low PTH1-84 guides the diagnose toward tumoral hypercalcemia and less frequently to granulomatous disease (sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, etc.), inadequate intake of 1α-hydroxyvitamin D or calcitriol, vitamin D or A intoxication, lithium intake, endocrinopathies (hyperthyroidism, Addison's disease, etc.) or treatment with thiazides, among other possibilities. Diagnosis of PHPT is confirmed by demonstrating persistent hypercalcemia (or normal-high serum calcium levels) in the presence of inappropriately normal or elevated serum PTH1-84 concentrations, unless the urinary calcium-to-creatinine clearance ratio is lower than 0.01. In these cases, in the absence of thiazide intake or severe vitamin D deficiency, diagnosis should focus on benign familial hypercalcemic hypocalciuria.
Parathyroid gland imaging is useful for localization of PHPT, but not for diagnosis of this entity.
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ABSTRACT: Several recent articles question whether patients with asymptomatic hyperparathyroidism and minimal hypercalcemia should be treated by parathyroidectomy. We therefore reviewed our experience in 103 consecutive patients with primary hyperparathyroidism who were treated by parathyroidectomy to determine, first, how many of these patients had asymptomatic or symptomatic hyperparathyroidism, and second, did these patients benefit from parathyroidectomy? We also analyzed the safety of parathyroidectomy in 426 consecutive patients, including 79 who required reoperation for hyperparathyroidism, specifically looking for complications and the outcome of these procedures. Our study documents the following: (1) only 2 of 103 (2%) patients referred for parathyroidectomy had "true" asymptomatic hyperparathyroidism; (2) only symptoms of fatigue, bone pain, and weight loss correlated with the degree of hypercalcemia, whereas muscular weakness, psychiatric symptoms, nocturia, polyuria, recent memory loss, constipation, and nephrolithiasis did not; (3) only 1 of 15 patients who were referred as asymptomatic were truly asymptomatic after more thorough questioning, and all 14 improved following parathyroidectomy; (4) 81% of the patients who were referred with symptoms improved following parathyroidectomy; and (5) permanent complications occurred in only 4 patients. All but 1 had reoperations for persistent or recurrent hyperparathyroidism (3 vocal cord paralyses and 1 hypoparathyroidism requiring autotransplantation of cryopreserved parathyroid tissue). There was 1 death of an 84-year-old woman with hypercalcemic crisis. Thus, most patients with hyperparathyroidism are symptomatic and benefit symptomatically and metabolically from parathyroidectomy, which is a safe operation.Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 11/1991; 6 Suppl 2:S135-42; discussion 151-2. · 6.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although primary hyperparathyroidism today is often a relatively asymptomatic disease, it has distinct biochemical and skeletal features. These features are present at diagnosis and are generally stable over time, leading to the theory of a biphasic disease course in which alterations occur during a preclinical phase. Measurement of calciotropic hormones in individuals undergoing skeletal evaluation has led to the identification of normocalcemic individuals with elevated PTH levels. We hypothesize that these patients represent the earliest manifestations of primary hyperparathyroidism Twenty-two patients had hyperparathyroidism (94 +/- 29 pg/ml) and normal corrected serum calcium levels (2.40 +/- 0.02 mmol/liter). No secondary causes of hyperparathyroidism were found. PTH levels did not correlate with urinary calcium concentration, renal function, vitamin D concentrations, or bone density. The relationship between PTH and serum calcium (regression slope, +0.004) was identical in normocalcemic and hypercalcemic hyperparathyroid patients. Preferential cortical bone loss, characteristic of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, was not seen (T-score: spine, -1.6; hip, -1.8; distal one-third radius, -1.3). In up to 12 months of observation, three patients have developed hypercalcemia, and one has had two adenomas removed. These patients with elevated PTH levels in the absence of hypercalcemia may provide a window into this previously unrecognized stage of the disease and permit investigators to track its evolution in ways that have not heretofore been possible.Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 12/2003; 88(11):5348-52. · 6.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sonography is the first line modality for assessment of thyroid and parathyroid pathologies. Sonographic and color Doppler patterns of diffuse and focal pathologies of the thyroid are presented in this article. The accuracy of sonography in the localization of enlarged parathyroid glands is also discussed. The limitations of sonography in specifying focal thyroid diseases and the problems in localizing ectopic parathyroid adenoma are addressed.Radiologic Clinics of North America 10/2000; 38(5):1131-45, xii. · 1.95 Impact Factor