Early-secreted antigenic target of 6-kDa of Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces IL-8 expression in lung epithelial cells via protein kinase signaling and reactive oxygen species
ABSTRACT Early-secreted antigenic target of 6-kDa (ESAT-6) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is critical for the virulence and pathogenicity of M. tuberculosis. IL-8, a major chemotactic cytokine for neutrophils and T lymphocytes plays important roles in the development of lung injury. To further understand the role of ESAT-6 in lung pathology associated with tuberculosis development, we studied the effects of ESAT-6 on the regulation of IL-8 expression in lung epithelial cells. ESAT-6 induced IL-8 expression by increasing IL-8 gene transcription and mRNA stability. ESAT-6 induction of IL-8 promoter activity was dependent on nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) binding and sensitive to pharmacological inhibition of PKC and ERK and p38 MAPK pathways. ESAT-6 activated ERK and p38 MAPK phosphorylation, and rapidly induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Dimethylthiourea but not mannitol inhibited IL-8 induction by ESAT-6 further supporting the involvement of ROS in the induction of IL-8 expression. Exposure of mice to ESAT-6 induced localized inflammatory cell aggregate formation with characteristics of early granuloma concomitant with increased keratinocyte chemoattractant CXCL1 (KC) staining in bronchiolar and alveolar type II epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages. Our studies have identified a signal transduction pathway involving ROS, PKC, ERK and p38 MAPKs, and NF-κB and AP-1 in the ESAT-6 induction of IL-8 expression in lung epithelial cells. This has important implications for the understanding of lung innate immune responses to tuberculosis and the pathogenesis of lung injury in tuberculosis.
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ABSTRACT: Scrub typhus, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is endemic in the Asia-Pacific region. Mortality is high if untreated, and even with treatment as high as 10-20%, further knowledge of the immune response during scrub typhus is needed. The current study was aimed at comparing plasma levels of a variety of inflammatory mediators in scrub typhus patients and controls in South India in order to map the broader cytokine profile and their relation to disease severity and clinical outcome. We examined plasma levels of several cytokines in scrub typhus patients (n = 129) compared to healthy controls (n = 31) and infectious disease controls (n = 31), both in the acute phase and after recovery, by multiplex technology and enzyme immunoassays. Scrub typhus patients were characterized by marked changes in the cytokine network during the acute phase, differing not only from healthy controls but also from infectious disease controls. While most of the inflammatory markers were raised in scrub typhus, platelet-derived mediators such as RANTES were markedly decreased, probably reflecting enhanced platelet activation. Some of the inflammatory markers, including various chemokines (e.g., interleukin-8, monocyte chemoattractant peptide-1 and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β) and downstream markers of inflammation (e.g., C-reactive protein and pentraxin-3), were also associated with disease severity and mortality during follow-up, with a particular strong association with interleukin-8. Our findings suggest that scrub typhus is characterized by a certain cytokine profile that includes dysregulated levels of a wide range of mediators, and that this enhanced inflammation could contribute to disease severity and clinical outcome.PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 02/2014; 8(2):e2648. DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002648 · 4.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important pathogen of pneumonia in human. Human alveolar epithelium acts as an effective barrier and is an active participant in host defense against invasion of bacterial by production of various mediators. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), the prototypic class III histone deacetylase, is involved in the molecular control of lifespans and immune responses. This study aimed at examining the role of SIRT1 in mediating S. pneumoniae-induced human β-defensin-2 (hBD2) and interleukin-8(IL-8) expression in the alveolar epithelial cell line A549 and the underlying mechanisms involved. A549 cells were infected with S. pneumoniae for indicated times. Exposure of A549 cells to S. pneumoniae increased the expressions of SIRT1 protein, hBD2 and IL-8 mRNA, and protein. The SIRT1 activator resveratrol enhanced S. pneumoniae-induced gene expression of hBD2 but decreased IL-8 mRNA levels. Blockade of SIRT1 activity by the SIRT1 inhibitors nicotinamide reduced S. pneumoniae-induced hBD2 mRNA expression but increased its stimulatory effects on IL-8 mRNA. S. pneumoniae-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). SIRT1 expression was attenuated by selective inhibitors of ERK and p38 MAPK. The hBD2 mRNA production was decreased by pretreatment with p38 MAPK inhibitor but not with ERK inhibitor, whereas the IL-8 mRNA expression was controlled by phosphorylation of ERK. These results suggest that SIRT1 mediates the induction of hBD2 and IL-8 gene expression levels in A549 cell by S. pneumoniae. SIRT1 may play a key role in host immune and defense response in A549.Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 06/2014; DOI:10.1007/s11010-014-2095-2 · 2.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Upon infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), neutrophils are massively recruited to the lungs, but the role of these cells in combating the infection is poorly understood. Through a type VII secretion system, Mtb releases a heterodimeric protein complex that is essential for virulence, containing 6 kDa early secreted antigenic target (ESAT-6) and 10 kDa culture filtrate protein (CFP-10). Whereas the ESAT-6 component possesses multiple virulence-related activities, no direct biological activity of CFP-10 has been shown, and CFP-10 has been described as a chaperone protein for ESAT-6. We here show that the ESAT-6:CFP-10 complex induces a transient release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores in human neutrophils. Surprisingly, CFP-10 rather than ESAT-6 was responsible for triggering the Ca(2+) response, in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner, suggesting the involvement of a G-protein coupled receptor. In line with this, the response was accompanied by neutrophil chemotaxis and activation of the superoxide-producing NADPH-oxidase. Neutrophils were unique among leukocytes to respond to CFP-10, as monocytes and lymphocytes failed to produce a Ca(2+) signal upon stimulation with the Mtb protein. Hence, CFP-10 may contribute specifically to neutrophil recruitment and activation during Mtb infection, representing a novel biological role for CFP-10 in the ESAT-6:CFP-10 complex, beyond the previously described chaperone function.Infection and Immunity 10/2014; 83(1). DOI:10.1128/IAI.02493-14 · 4.16 Impact Factor