Clinical implications of predominant polarity and the polarity index in bipolar disorder: a naturalistic study.
ABSTRACT Predominant polarity (PP) is an important variable in maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder (BD). This study aimed at determining the role of polarity index (PI), a metric indicating antimanic versus antidepressive prophylactic potential of drugs, in clinical decision-making.
Two hundred and fifty-seven of 604 (43%) of patients with BD-I or II fulfilled criteria for manic (MPP) or depressive PP (DPP). The PI, representing the ratio of number needed to treat (NNT) for depression prevention to NNT for mania prevention, was calculated for patients' current treatment. MPP and DPP groups were compared regarding sociodemographic, clinical and therapeutic characteristics.
One hundred and forty-three patients (55.6%) fulfilled criteria for DPP and 114 (44.4%) for MPP. Total PI, Antipsychotics' PI, and mood stabilizers PI were higher, indicating a stronger antimanic action, in MPP. MPP presented higher prevalence of BD-I, male gender, younger age, age at onset and at first hospitalization, more hospitalizations, primary substance misuse, and psychotic symptoms. DP correlated with BD-II, depressive onset, primary life events, melancholia, and suicide attempts.
The results confirm the usefulness of the PI. In this large sample, clinical differences among these groups justify differential treatment approach. The PI appears to be a useful operationalization of what clinicians do for maintenance therapy in BD.
- SourceAvailable from: Angelo Giovanni Icro Maremmani[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Homeless individuals are an extremely vulnerable and underserved population characterized by overlapping problems of mental illness and substance use. Given the fact that mood disorders are frequently associated with substance use disorders, we wanted to further highlight the role of excitement in substance abuse. Patterns of substance abuse among homeless suffering from unipolar and bipolar depression were compared. The "self-medication hypothesis" which would predict no-differences in substance preference by unipolar (UP) and bipolar (BP) depressed homeless was tested. Homeless individuals from the Vancouver At Home/Chez Soi study were selected for lifetime UP and lifetime BP depression and patterns of substances abused in the previous 12 months were identified with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Differences in substance use between BP-depressed homeless and UP-depressed homeless were tested using Chi-square and logistic regression techniques. No significant differences were observed between UP and BP homeless demographics. The bipolar depressed homeless (BDH) group displayed a higher percentage of Central Nervous System (CNS) Stimulants (χ 8.66, p=0.004) and Opiates (χ 6.41, p=0.013) as compared to the unipolar depressed homeless (UDH) group. CSN Stimulant was the only predictor within the BDH Group (χ(2) 8.74 df 1 p<0.003). Data collected are self-reported and no urinalyses were performed. The results support the hypothesis that beyond the self-medication hypothesis, bipolarity is strictly correlated to substance use; this correlation is also verified in a homeless population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Journal of Affective Disorders 02/2015; 176C. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2015.01.059
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ABSTRACT: Although the most distinctive clinical feature of bipolar disorder is the pathologically elevated mood, it does not usually constitute the prevalent mood state of bipolar illness. The majority of patients with bipolar disorder spend much more time in depressive episodes, including subsyndromal depressive symptoms, and bipolar depression accounts for the largest part of the morbidity and mortality of the illness. The pharmacological treatment of bipolar depression mostly consists of combinations of at least two drugs, including mood stabilizers (lithium and anticonvulsants), atypical antipsychotics, and antidepressants. Antidepressants are the most frequently prescribed drugs, but recommendations from evidence-based guidelines are not conclusive and do not overtly support their use. Among antidepressants, best evidence exists for fluoxetine, but in combination with olanzapine. Although some guidelines recommend the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or bupropion in combination with antimanic agents as first-choice treatment, others do not, based on the available evidence. Among anticonvulsants, the use of lamotrigine is overall recommended as a first-line choice, but acute monotherapy studies have failed. Valproate is generally mentioned as a second-line treatment. Lithium monotherapy is also suggested by most guidelines as a first-line treatment, but its efficacy in acute use is not totally clear. Amongst atypical antipsychotics, quetiapine, in monotherapy or as adjunctive treatment, is recommended by most guidelines as a first-line choice. Olanzapine monotherapy is also suggested by some guidelines and is approved in Japan. Armodafinil, pramipexole, ketamine, and lurasidone are recent proposals. Long-term treatment in bipolar disorder is strongly recommended, but guidelines do not recommend the use of antidepressants as a maintenance treatment. Lithium, lamotrigine, valproate, olanzapine, quetiapine, and aripiprazole are the recommended first-line maintenance options.CNS Drugs 06/2013; 27(7). DOI:10.1007/s40263-013-0073-y
- Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 03/2014; DOI:10.1111/acps.12270