Deficiency of the Cog8 Subunit in Normal and CDG-Derived Cells Impairs the Assembly of the COG and Golgi SNARE Complexes
ABSTRACT Multiple mutations in different subunits of the tethering complex COG have been identified as a cause for Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation (CDG) in humans. Yet, the mechanisms by which COG mutations induce the pleiotropic CDG defects have not been fully defined. By detailed analysis of Cog8 deficiency in either HeLa cells or CDG-derived fibroblasts, we show that Cog8 is required for the assembly of both the COG complex and the Golgi Stx5-GS28-Ykt6-GS15 and Stx6-Stx16-Vti1a-VAMP4 SNARE complexes. The assembly of these SNARE complexes is also impaired in cells derived from a Cog7-deficient CDG patient. Likewise, the integrity of the COG complex is also impaired in Cog1, Cog4 and Cog6 depleted cells. Significantly, deficiency of Cog1, Cog4, Cog6 or Cog8 distinctly influences the production of COG subcomplexes and their Golgi targeting. These results shed light on the structural organization of the COG complex and its subcellular localization, and suggest that its integrity is required for both tethering of transport vesicles to the Golgi apparatus and the assembly of Golgi SNARE complexes. We propose that these two key functions are generally and mechanistically impaired in COG-associated CDG patients, thereby exerting severe pleiotropic defects.
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ABSTRACT: The fusion of transport vesicles with their target membranes is fundamental for intracellular membrane trafficking and diverse physiological processes and is driven by the assembly of functional soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complexes. Prior to fusion, transport vesicles are physically linked to their target membranes by various tethering factors. Recent studies suggest that tethering factors also positively regulate the assembly of functional SNARE complexes, thereby coupling tethering with fusion events. This coupling is mediated, at least in part, by direct physical interactions between tethering factors, SNAREs, and Sec1/Munc18 (SM) proteins. In this review we summarize recent progress in understanding the roles of tethering factors in the assembly of specific and functional SNARE complexes driving membrane-fusion events.Trends in cell biology 10/2013; 24(1). DOI:10.1016/j.tcb.2013.09.006
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ABSTRACT: All viruses require host cell factors to replicate. A large number of host factors have been identified that participate at numerous points of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) life cycle. Recent evidence supports a role for components of the trans-Golgi network (TGN) in mediating early steps in the HIV-1 life cycle. The Conserved Oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex is a heteroctamer complex that functions in coat protein complex I (COPI)-mediated intra-Golgi retrograde trafficking and plays an important role in the maintenance of Golgi structure and integrity as well as glycosylation enzyme homeostasis. The targeted silencing of components of lobe B of the COG complex, namely COG5, COG6, COG7 and COG8, inhibited HIV-1 replication. This inhibition of HIV-1 replication preceded late reverse transcription (RT) but did not affect viral fusion. Silencing of the COG interacting protein the t-SNARE syntaxin 5, showed a similar defect in late RT product formation, strengthening the role of the TGN in HIV replication.Virus Research 08/2014; 192. DOI:10.1016/j.virusres.2014.08.015
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ABSTRACT: The conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex is required, along with SNARE and Sec1/Munc18 (SM) proteins, for vesicle docking and fusion at the Golgi. COG, like other multisubunit tethering complexes (MTCs), is thought to function as a scaffold and/or chaperone to direct the assembly of productive SNARE complexes at the sites of membrane fusion. Reflecting this essential role, mutations in the COG complex can cause congenital disorders of glycosylation. A deeper understanding of COG function and dysfunction will likely depend on elucidating its molecular structure. Despite some progress toward this goal, including EM studies of COG lobe A (subunits 1-4) and higher-resolution structures of portions of Cog2 and Cog4, the structures of COG's eight subunits and the principles governing their assembly are mostly unknown. Here, we report the crystal structure of a complex between two lobe B subunits, Cog5 and Cog7. The structure reveals that Cog5 is a member of the complexes associated with tethering containing helical rods (CATCHR) fold family, with homology to subunits of other MTCs including the Dsl1, exocyst, and Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complexes. The Cog5-Cog7 interaction is analyzed in relation to the Dsl1 complex, the only other CATCHR-family MTC for which subunit interactions have been characterized in detail. Biochemical and functional studies validate the physiological relevance of the observed Cog5-Cog7 interface, indicate that it is conserved from yeast to humans, and demonstrate that its disruption in human cells causes defects in trafficking and glycosylation.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2014; 111(44). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1414829111