Investigation of the effects of Chlorella vulgaris supplementation on the modulation of oxidative stress in apparently healthy smokers.

Chemical Injuries Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Clinical laboratory (Impact Factor: 1.08). 01/2013; 59(5-6):579-87. DOI: 10.7754/Clin.Lab.2012.120110
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Smoking is among the established yet modifiable risk factors for cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and pulmonary disorders. Oxidative stress has been proposed as a key mechanism mediating the deleterious consequences of smoking. The present study evaluated the effect of supplementation with Chlorella vulgaris, a nutrient and bioactive green microalgae with proven antioxidant capacity, on the burden of oxidative stress in Iranian smokers.
Thirty-eight smokers (mean age: 37.11 +/- 1.69 years; females: 18.4%) were administered C. vulgaris extract (3600 mg/day) for a period of 6 weeks. Fasted serum samples collected at baseline and after the completion of study were analyzed for the concentrations of vitamin C, vitamin E, glutathione, and malonedialdehyde (MDA) as well as activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase. Total antioxidant capacity of serum was also determined by the ability of serum to inhibit the formation of ferryl myoglobin radical species.
Six-week supplementation with C. vulgaris extract in smokers was associated with marked elevation of all assessed serum antioxidant measures (p < 0.001) and significant reduction of MDA levels (p = 0.002). After gender segregation, a similar pattern of changes was observed for both male and female subjects apart from lack of significant change in serum vitamin E status in females. Although the magnitude of change in serum vitamin E was significantly greater in males compared to females (p = 0.014), there was no significant change in the magnitude of changes for other assessed parameters between the genders.
Supplementation with C. vulgaris extract significantly improves antioxidant status and attenuates lipid peroxidation in chronic cigarette smokers. Hence, C. vulgaris might prevent the disease burden and mortality rate associated with smoking.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cigarette smoke is a significant source of oxidative stress, one potential mechanism for its untoward health effects. The antioxidant defense system is partly comprised of antioxidant micronutrients, making it important to understand the relationship between cigarette smoking and circulating concentrations of antioxidant micronutrients. A synthesis of the literature shows that compared with nonsmokers, on average, active smokers have greater than 25% lower circulating concentrations of ascorbic acid, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and cryptoxanthin. The differences in blood concentrations of these micronutrients in former smokers is intermediate between never and current smokers, but average circulating concentrations of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and cryptoxanthin were 16-22% lower in former smokers compared with never smokers. Differences in dietary habits between smokers and nonsmokers could potentially account for these associations. Dietary micronutrient intake is associated with blood micronutrient concentrations. Furthermore, patterns of micronutrient consumption by smoking status mimic the pattern of associations observed for blood concentrations. For example, when pooled across studies intake of vitamin C was 16% lower in current smokers and 2% lower in former smokers than in never smokers; the corresponding figures for beta-carotene were 17 and 4%, respectively. Despite the strong potential for confounding, the differences observed between current smokers and nonsmokers seem to be due to an acute effect of smoking based on results of studies of smoking and antioxidant micronutrient concentrations that have either adjusted for dietary antioxidant micronutrient intake and other potential confounding factors or documented short term changes in circulating antioxidant micronutrient concentrations in smokers before and after smoking cigarettes. The associations observed with active smoking also appear to hold true for passive smoking, implying that even low-dose exposures to tobacco smoke can result in lowered circulating antioxidant micronutrient concentrations. Smoking was more weakly associated with circulating concentrations of vitamin E and the nonprovitamin A carotenoids lutein/zeaxanthin and lycopene. The combined evidence supports the conclusion that cigarette smoking is independently associated with lowered circulating concentrations of ascorbic acid and provitamin A carotenoids. These associations have implications for the design and interpretation of epidemiologic studies of antioxidant micronutrients in relation to health and disease. To the extent that these micronutrients are associated with health and longevity, this evidence documents yet another deleterious consequence of cigarette smoking on human health.
    Toxicology 12/2002; 180(2):121-37. · 3.75 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chronic exposure to cement dust has been reported to lead to several health problems. This study was designed to investigate the plasma oxidant and antioxidant status in cement plant workers and control subjects. Twenty-eight volunteer male cement plant workers and 30 volunteer office male workers (control) aged 29-54 years participated. The concentration of plasma vitamin C (P-VC), plasma vitamin E (P-VE), plasma malondialdehyde (P-MDA), and the activity of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (E-SOD), plasma glutathione peroxidase (P-GSH-Px), and some serum biochemical parameters were measured in both groups. The levels of MDA (175%), ALT (61%), and AST (39%) were significantly increased, while total RBC count (12%), Hb (11%) vitamin E (51%), C (35%), SOD (44%), and GSH-Px (51%) activities were markedly decreased, and the levels of urea, protein, and albumin triglyceride and cholesterol were almost the same in cement plant workers versus the control subjects. Cement workers are exposed to more oxidative stress compared to control subjects. To overcome these oxidative stresses, supplementation of antioxidant vitamins, such as alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid, may be beneficial. In addition, proper precaution to protect workers could prevent serious health problems.
    Clinica Chimica Acta 04/2004; 341(1-2):193-8. · 2.76 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The relationship between cigarette smoking and cell damage is complicated, particularly considering the role of oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to identify the relationships among plasma nicotine metabolites, lipophilic antioxidants, and metabolic parameters in smokers and nonsmokers. This cross-sectional study recruited 100 subjects who visited the Department of Family Medicine at Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital. Excluding 14 ineligible cases, 46 smokers and 40 non-smokers were enrolled. Plasma nicotine metabolites, lipophilic antioxidants (including retinol, lycopene, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, delta-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol and alpha-tocopherol), related metabolic parameters, and body composition (including height, weight, body mass index, body fat, and waist circumference) were examined by comparison of means, correlations and regressions. Significant correlations among nicotine metabolites, age, sex, body composition and plasma lipophilic antioxidants were noted. Nicotine metabolites, age, body height and body weight were closely associated with plasma antioxidant levels (p < 0.05) in multiple linear regression. The levels of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, gamma-tocopherol and lycopene were lower in smokers than in non-smokers (p < 0.01). The plasma level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), which is a marker for high cardiovascular risk, was higher in smokers than in non-smokers (p = 0.003). We conclude that the lower plasma antioxidant levels and the higher level of hsCRP in smokers may lead to decreased protective efficacy compared with non-smokers. Further studies are warranted to support our hypothesis.
    The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences 08/2009; 25(8):423-30. · 0.81 Impact Factor