Investigation of the Effects of Chlorella vulgaris Supplementation on the Modulation of Oxidative Stress in Apparently Healthy Smokers
ABSTRACT Smoking is among the established yet modifiable risk factors for cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and pulmonary disorders. Oxidative stress has been proposed as a key mechanism mediating the deleterious consequences of smoking. The present study evaluated the effect of supplementation with Chlorella vulgaris, a nutrient and bioactive green microalgae with proven antioxidant capacity, on the burden of oxidative stress in Iranian smokers.
Thirty-eight smokers (mean age: 37.11 +/- 1.69 years; females: 18.4%) were administered C. vulgaris extract (3600 mg/day) for a period of 6 weeks. Fasted serum samples collected at baseline and after the completion of study were analyzed for the concentrations of vitamin C, vitamin E, glutathione, and malonedialdehyde (MDA) as well as activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase. Total antioxidant capacity of serum was also determined by the ability of serum to inhibit the formation of ferryl myoglobin radical species.
Six-week supplementation with C. vulgaris extract in smokers was associated with marked elevation of all assessed serum antioxidant measures (p < 0.001) and significant reduction of MDA levels (p = 0.002). After gender segregation, a similar pattern of changes was observed for both male and female subjects apart from lack of significant change in serum vitamin E status in females. Although the magnitude of change in serum vitamin E was significantly greater in males compared to females (p = 0.014), there was no significant change in the magnitude of changes for other assessed parameters between the genders.
Supplementation with C. vulgaris extract significantly improves antioxidant status and attenuates lipid peroxidation in chronic cigarette smokers. Hence, C. vulgaris might prevent the disease burden and mortality rate associated with smoking.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A wide variety of natural sources are under investigation to evaluate their possible use for new functional ingredient formulation. Some records attested the traditional and ancient use of wild harvested microalgae as human food but their cultivation for different purposes started about 40 years ago. The most popular species are Arthrospira (traditional name, Spirulina), Chlorella spp., Dunaliella spp. and Haematococcus spp. Microalgae provide a bewildering array of opportunities to develop healthier food products using innovative approaches and a number of different strategies. Compared to other natural sources of bioactive ingredients, microalgae have many advantages such as their huge biodiversity, the possibility to grow in arid land and with limited fresh water consumption and the flexibility of their metabolism, which could be adapted to produce specific molecules. All these factors led to very sustainable production making microalgae eligible as one of the most promising foods for the future, particularly as source of proteins, lipids and phytochemicals. In this work, a revision of the knowledge about the use of microalgae as food and as a source of functional ingredients has been performed. The most interesting results in the field are presented and commented upon, focusing on the different species of microalgae and the activity of the nutritionally relevant compounds. A summary of the health effects obtained together with pros and cons in the adoption of this natural source as functional food ingredients is also proposed.Food & Function 06/2014; 5(8). DOI:10.1039/c4fo00125g · 2.91 Impact Factor