Changes in Cheddar Cheese by Commercial Enzyme Preparations
Department of Food Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850, and Institute of Technical Research, Snow Brand Milk Products Co., Ltd., Tokyo, JapanJournal of Dairy Science (Impact Factor: 2.57). 07/1975; 58(7):963-970. DOI: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(75)84667-4
Free volatile acids, soluble protein, and flavor production were accelerated in young ripened Cheddar cheese by adding various combinations of proteolytic and lipolytic commercial enzyme preparations with salt to curds before pressing. Cheese held 1 mo at 20 C and containing about 2.5 g mixed enzymes per 5.9 kg curd had higher flavor than controls. Some rancidity but no bitterness accompanied this cheese flavor. Higher ripening temperature and longer holding times led to burnt flavors and pronounced rancidity. Processed cheese made by mixing mild 2 mo old natural Cheddar cheese with 10 to 40% 1 mo enzyme-treated cheese gave good texture and medium to very sharp flavor intensity. Various mixtures of neutral protease and lipase enzymes and of neutral protease-peptidase and lipase enzymes in cheese slurries developed cheese flavor rapidly with minimum bitterness. Microbial acid proteases in cheese slurries led to strong bitterness.
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ABSTRACT: Enzymes abound in nature, and their reactions vary from the simple to the exquisitely complex. Milk and milk products as substrates invite with in- creasing frequency many enzyme reac- tions in a receptive environment. This presentation is limited to certain topics involving enzymes that are familiar to the author through personal research or are of interest to him. It leaves largely to experts the unfamiliar or exotic enzymes and their behavior. Included in this category are genetically structured enzymes for rennet curd formation and cheese flavor enhancement. Important areas dealt with in this review involve applications of lactoperoxidase, lyso- zyme, and lactase; behavior of protease, chymosin, and phosphatases; accelerated cheese ripening; and ultrafiltration and enzymes. Also discussed are penicillinase production in cheeses, enzymes as anal- ytical tools, and enzymatic transforma- tion of cholesterol.
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ABSTRACT: The potential of applying enzymes to continuous cheesemaking processes is real despite many problems.An English continuous cheesemaking process for Cheddar cheese, utilizing the principle of cold milk rennetting for continuous curd formation of Cheddar cheese, reflects recent activity. Such cheese was produced on a pilot plant scale by first reacting milk at 4 to 5 C with starter culture and rennet overnight, followed by instant and continuous coagulation as the enzyme reacted milk moved through batteries of long Visking dialysis columns. The curd was drained and texturized continuously at elevated temperatures prior to Cheddaring. The real needs for continuous cheesemaking include proper mechanical design of equipment for heating curd and expelling whey.Application of food grade lactase from yeast (Saccharomyces lactis) to cheese milk for accelerated acid development, and food grade lipases and proteases from microorganisms (Aspergillus oryzae) to cheese curds with salt for accelerated flavor, have a potential for continuous cheesemaking, particularly for cheese made from pasteurized cow's milk or from imitation milks.Insolubilized enzyme systems for cheesemaking such as pepsin, rennin, catalase, and lactase, are emerging, but their application demands imagination and fortitude. Challenges to continuous cheesemaking with or without enzymes can be expected to continue from batch cheesemaking systems which are constantly evolving to larger and larger units with improved economics.Journal of Dairy Science 07/1975; 58(7):994-1000. DOI:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(75)84671-6 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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