Changes in Cheddar Cheese by Commercial Enzyme Preparations
Department of Food Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850, and Institute of Technical Research, Snow Brand Milk Products Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan Journal of Dairy Science
(Impact Factor: 2.57).
07/1975; 58(7):963-970. DOI: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(75)84667-4
Free volatile acids, soluble protein, and flavor production were accelerated in young ripened Cheddar cheese by adding various combinations of proteolytic and lipolytic commercial enzyme preparations with salt to curds before pressing. Cheese held 1 mo at 20 C and containing about 2.5 g mixed enzymes per 5.9 kg curd had higher flavor than controls. Some rancidity but no bitterness accompanied this cheese flavor. Higher ripening temperature and longer holding times led to burnt flavors and pronounced rancidity. Processed cheese made by mixing mild 2 mo old natural Cheddar cheese with 10 to 40% 1 mo enzyme-treated cheese gave good texture and medium to very sharp flavor intensity. Various mixtures of neutral protease and lipase enzymes and of neutral protease-peptidase and lipase enzymes in cheese slurries developed cheese flavor rapidly with minimum bitterness. Microbial acid proteases in cheese slurries led to strong bitterness.
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ABSTRACT: The potential of applying enzymes to continuous cheesemaking processes is real despite many problems.An English continuous cheesemaking process for Cheddar cheese, utilizing the principle of cold milk rennetting for continuous curd formation of Cheddar cheese, reflects recent activity. Such cheese was produced on a pilot plant scale by first reacting milk at 4 to 5 C with starter culture and rennet overnight, followed by instant and continuous coagulation as the enzyme reacted milk moved through batteries of long Visking dialysis columns. The curd was drained and texturized continuously at elevated temperatures prior to Cheddaring. The real needs for continuous cheesemaking include proper mechanical design of equipment for heating curd and expelling whey.Application of food grade lactase from yeast (Saccharomyces lactis) to cheese milk for accelerated acid development, and food grade lipases and proteases from microorganisms (Aspergillus oryzae) to cheese curds with salt for accelerated flavor, have a potential for continuous cheesemaking, particularly for cheese made from pasteurized cow's milk or from imitation milks.Insolubilized enzyme systems for cheesemaking such as pepsin, rennin, catalase, and lactase, are emerging, but their application demands imagination and fortitude. Challenges to continuous cheesemaking with or without enzymes can be expected to continue from batch cheesemaking systems which are constantly evolving to larger and larger units with improved economics.
Journal of Dairy Science 07/1975; 58(7):994-1000. DOI:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(75)84671-6 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The number of starter bacteria in Cheddar cheese was increased approximately 2 or 8 times by supplementing the normal starter inoculum with starter-cell suspensions which had been incubated with lysozyme in the absence of salt. Lysozyme-treated cells were also introduced into chemically acidified cheese in an attempt to achieve ripening in the absence of a normal starter culture. The added starters did not interfere with normal cheese-making by producing acid. The lysozyme-treated starter cells were lysed when the curd was salted and lysis was detected by the release of cell-free DNA and an intracellular marker enzyme (dipeptidase) into the cheese matrix. Free amino acid concentrations in maturing cheeses were increased up to 3 times compared with control cheeses. The intensity of Cheddar flavour was not increased in starter cheeses by the presence of additional lysozyme-treated starter and no Cheddar flavour developed in chemically acidified cheese containing the lysozyme-treated cells. It is concluded that intracellular starter enzymes play no direct part in flavour formation, but produce breakdown products from which Cheddar flavour compounds may be formed by other unknown mechanisms.
Journal of Dairy Research 05/1976; 43(02):301 - 311. DOI:10.1017/S0022029900015867 · 1.60 Impact Factor
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