Introgression of stem rust resistance genes SrTA10187 and SrTA10171 from Aegilops tauschii to wheat
ABSTRACT Aegilops tauschii, the diploid progenitor of the wheat D genome, is a readily accessible germplasm pool for wheat breeding as genes can be transferred to elite wheat cultivars through direct hybridization followed by backcrossing. Gene transfer and genetic mapping can be integrated by developing mapping populations during backcrossing. Using direct crossing, two genes for resistance to the African stem rust fungus race TTKSK (Ug99), were transferred from the Ae. tauschii accessions TA10187 and TA10171 to an elite hard winter wheat line, KS05HW14. BC2 mapping populations were created concurrently with developing advanced backcross lines carrying rust resistance. Bulked segregant analysis on the BC2 populations identified marker loci on 6DS and 7DS linked to stem rust resistance genes transferred from TA10187 and TA10171, respectively. Linkage maps were developed for both genes and closely linked markers reported in this study will be useful for selection and pyramiding with other Ug99-effective stem rust resistance genes. The Ae. tauschii-derived resistance genes were temporarily designated SrTA10187 and SrTA10171 and will serve as valuable resources for stem rust resistance breeding.
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ABSTRACT: Recent advances in our understanding of the nature of resistance genes and rust fungus genomics are providing some insight into the basis of resistance and susceptibility to rust diseases in our cereal crops. Characterized rust resistance genes, for the most part, resemble other resistance genes that interact with effectors intracellularly, but some have unique features. Characterization of rust effectors is just beginning but genomic information and technical advances in rust functional genomics will accelerate their characterization. The ephemeral nature of resistance in past varieties has made the design of cultivars with durable resistance a major focus for geneticists and cereal breeders. This includes strategies for deploying race-specific resistance genes that prolong their effects and methods of predicting which will be difficult for the pathogen to defeat. Identification of resistance genes with race-nonspecific effects is another strategy where recent breakthroughs have been made. Routinely combining the numerous genes required for complex resistance, whether specific or nonspecific, in elite cultivars remains a primary constraint to realizing durable resistance in most programs.Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 03/2014; 27(3):207-14. DOI:10.1094/MPMI-09-13-0295-FI
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ABSTRACT: Monitoring alien introgressions in crop plants is difficult due to the lack of genetic and molecular mapping information on the wild crop relatives. The tertiary gene pool of wheat is a very important source of genetic variability for wheat improvement against biotic and abiotic stresses. By exploring the 5Mg short arm (5MgS) of Aegilops geniculata, we can apply chromosome genomics for the discovery of SNP markers and their use for monitoring alien introgressions in wheat (Triticum aestivum L). The short arm of chromosome 5Mg of Aegilops geniculata Roth (syn. Aegilops ovata L.; 2n = 4x = 28, UgUgMgMg) was flow-sorted from a wheat line in which it is maintained as a telocentric chromosome. DNA of the sorted arm was amplified and sequenced using an Illumina Hiseq 2000 with ~45x coverage. The sequence data was used for SNP discovery against wheat homoeologous group-5 assemblies. A total of 2,178 unique, 5MgS-specific SNPs were discovered. Randomly selected samples of 59 5MgS-specific SNPs were tested (44 by KASPar assay and 15 by Sanger sequencing) and 84% were validated. Of the selected SNPs, 97% mapped to a chromosome 5Mg addition to wheat (the source of t5MgS), and 94% to 5Mg introgressed from a different accession of Ae. geniculata substituting for chromosome 5D of wheat. The validated SNPs also identified chromosome segments of 5MgS origin in a set of T5D-5Mg translocation lines; eight SNPs (25%) mapped to TA5601 [T5DL . 5DS-5MgS(0.75)] and three (8%) to TA5602 [T5DL . 5DS-5MgS (0.95)]. SNPs (gsnp_5ms83 and gsnp_5ms94), tagging chromosome T5DL . 5DS-5MgS(0.95) with the smallest introgression carrying resistance to leaf rust (Lr57) and stripe rust (Yr40), were validated in two released germplasm lines with Lr57 and Yr40 genes. This approach should be widely applicable for the identification of species/genome-specific SNPs. The development of a large number of SNP markers will facilitate the precise introgression and monitoring of alien segments in crop breeding programs and further enable mapping and cloning novel genes from the wild relatives of crop plants.BMC Genomics 04/2014; 15(1):273. DOI:10.1186/1471-2164-15-273
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ABSTRACT: Key message This consensus map of stem rust genes, QTLs, and molecular markers will facilitate the identification of new resistance genes and provide a resource of in formation for development of new markers for breeding wheat varieties resistant to Ug99. Abstract The global effort to identify new sources of resistance to wheat stem rust, caused by Pucciniagraminis f. sp. tritici race group Ug99 has resulted in numerous studies reporting both qualitative genes and quantitative trait loci. The purpose of our study was to assemble all available information on loci associated with stem rust resistance from 21 recent studies on Triticum aestivum L. (bread wheat) and Triticum turgidum subsp. durum desf. (durum wheat). The software LPmerge was used to construct a stem rust resistance loci consensus wheat map with 1,433 markers incorporating Single Nucleotide Polymorphism, Diversity Arrays Technology, Genotyping-by-Sequencing as well as Simple Sequence Repeat marker information. Most of the markers associated with stem rust resistance have been identified in more than one population. Several loci identified in these populations map to the same regions with known Sr genes including Sr2, SrND643, Sr25 and Sr57 (Lr34/Yr18/Pm38), while other significant markers were located in chromosome regions where no Sr genes have been previously reported. This consensus map provides a comprehensive source of information on 141 stem rust resistance loci conferring resistance to stem rust Ug99 as well as linked markers for use in marker-assisted selection. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-014-2326-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.Theoretical and Applied Genetics 06/2014; 127(7). DOI:10.1007/s00122-014-2326-7