Structure of the human glucagon class B G-protein-coupled receptor.
ABSTRACT Binding of the glucagon peptide to the glucagon receptor (GCGR) triggers the release of glucose from the liver during fasting; thus GCGR plays an important role in glucose homeostasis. Here we report the crystal structure of the seven transmembrane helical domain of human GCGR at 3.4 Å resolution, complemented by extensive site-specific mutagenesis, and a hybrid model of glucagon bound to GCGR to understand the molecular recognition of the receptor for its native ligand. Beyond the shared seven transmembrane fold, the GCGR transmembrane domain deviates from class A G-protein-coupled receptors with a large ligand-binding pocket and the first transmembrane helix having a 'stalk' region that extends three alpha-helical turns above the plane of the membrane. The stalk positions the extracellular domain (∼12 kilodaltons) relative to the membrane to form the glucagon-binding site that captures the peptide and facilitates the insertion of glucagon's amino terminus into the seven transmembrane domain.
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ABSTRACT: The secretin amino-terminal residues are essential for high affinity binding to its cognate receptor and for its biological activity. Mutation of the [Asp3] residue of secretin to [Asn3] decreased the ligand's affinity for the rat wild-type receptor 100-300-fold. Receptor mutations in the transmembrane 2 domain and the beginning of the first extracellular loop allowed the identification of three residues involved in recognition of the [Asp3] residue: D174, K173 and R166. Mutation of K173 and D174 not only reduced the secretin and [Asn3]secretin affinities, but also changed the receptor's selectivity as judged by a decreased secretin and [Asn3]secretin potency ratio. The most striking effect was observed when R166 was mutated to Q, D or L. This led to receptors with a very low affinity for secretin but an up to 10-fold higher affinity than the wild-type receptor for [Asn3]secretin. This suggested that R166, highly conserved in that subgroup of receptor, is a major determinant for the recognition of the [Asp3] of the ligand.FEBS Letters 03/1998; 424(3):207-10. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide receptor (GIP-R) is a member of the secretin and parathyroid hormone (PTH) family of seven transmembrane-spanning receptors. Point mutations of a histidine at the junction between the first intracellular loop and the second membrane-spanning domain and a threonine in the sixth membrane-spanning domain of the human PTH-receptor have been reported to be associated with constitutive activation of the PTH receptor in Jansen-type metaphyseal chondrodysplasia. In this study, we explored whether such mutations in the GIP-R might similarly induce constitutive, ligand-independent activation of the receptor. Single amino acid substitutions in the GIP receptor were made by site-directed mutagenesis and receptor binding and cAMP levels were measured in transfected human embryonal kidney cell line (L293). Mutation of the threonine at position 340 in the sixth transmembrane spanning domain to proline (T340P) led to agonist-independent constitutive activity and exhibited a four-fold increase in basal cAMP level as compared to the wild-type GIP-R. The increase in cAMP level in T340P mutant was proportional to the amount of transfected plasmid and corresponded to the receptor number on the cell surface. Despite its high basal cAMP level, the T340P mutant could be further stimulated by GIP, with maximal cAMP generation comparable to the wild-type receptor. The change of amino acid histidine at position 169 to arginine (H169R), however, behaved like the wild type receptor and did not possess constitutive activity. These results illustrate that a point mutation of threonine to proline at position 340 results in constitutive activation of the GIP receptor, without affecting its sensitivity to agonist stimulation.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 04/1997; 232(1):96-100. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: G protein-coupled receptors initiate signaling cascades after associating with heterotrimeric G proteins. This is typically initiated by agonist binding, but can also occur spontaneously, particularly in receptors bearing distinct missense mutations. Two such mutations in the parathyroid hormone receptor are associated with constitutive activity, manifesting clinically as Jansen's metaphyseal chondroplasia. We introduce analogous mutations separately and together into the secretin receptor to explore their impact on another family member. Constructs were expressed transiently in COS cells, and had binding and signaling (cAMP generation) studied. Each construct was processed appropriately to lead to cell surface expression and signaling. Secretin bound to the wild-type receptor with two affinity states recognized, 1% of sites in the high affinity state (Ki = 0.5 +/- 0.1 nM) and 99% in the low affinity state (Ki = 23 +/- 3 nM). Mutant receptor binding best fit a single affinity state, having values for Ki of 5 +/- 1 nM (H156R), 8 +/- 1 nM (T322P) and 6 +/- 1 nM (H156R/T322P), with each of these demonstrating a shift to higher affinity than the predominent low affinity state of the wild-type receptor. Each mutant receptor expressed small to moderate constitutive activity, with basal levels of cAMP activity greater than control (P < .01): H156R, 1.4-fold; T322P, 4.5-fold and H156R/T322P, 6.8-fold. The level of basal activity of even the most active construct was only 15% of the maximal response of wild-type receptor. Although each of the single site mutants responded to secretin by increasing their cAMP levels in a concentration-dependent manner, the dual mutant decreased its cAMP in response to hormone (EC50 = 13 nM). Thus, a natural agonist had become an inverse agonist at this unique construct. Because this could reflect reduced normal coupling with Gs or increased aberrant coupling with Gi, the mechanism was further explored using pertussis toxin and a stable analogue of GTP. Although ligand-binding determinants were retained in the dual receptor mutant, the conformation of this receptor upon secretin binding effected a reduction in its basal coupling with Gs, thereby resulting in inverse agonism.Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 09/1998; 286(2):593-8. · 3.89 Impact Factor