Article

Mutations in DSTYK and Dominant Urinary Tract Malformations.

The authors' full names, degrees, and affiliations are listed in the Appendix.
New England Journal of Medicine (Impact Factor: 54.42). 07/2013; DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1214479
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Background Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and the urinary tract are the most common cause of pediatric kidney failure. These disorders are highly heterogeneous, and the etiologic factors are poorly understood. Methods We performed genomewide linkage analysis and whole-exome sequencing in a family with an autosomal dominant form of congenital abnormalities of the kidney or urinary tract (seven affected family members). We also performed a sequence analysis in 311 unrelated patients, as well as histologic and functional studies. Results Linkage analysis identified five regions of the genome that were shared among all affected family members. Exome sequencing identified a single, rare, deleterious variant within these linkage intervals, a heterozygous splice-site mutation in the dual serine-threonine and tyrosine protein kinase gene (DSTYK). This variant, which resulted in aberrant splicing of messenger RNA, was present in all affected family members. Additional, independent DSTYK mutations, including nonsense and splice-site mutations, were detected in 7 of 311 unrelated patients. DSTYK is highly expressed in the maturing epithelia of all major organs, localizing to cell membranes. Knockdown in zebrafish resulted in developmental defects in multiple organs, which suggested loss of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling. Consistent with this finding is the observation that DSTYK colocalizes with FGF receptors in the ureteric bud and metanephric mesenchyme. DSTYK knockdown in human embryonic kidney cells inhibited FGF-stimulated phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK), the principal signal downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases. Conclusions We detected independent DSTYK mutations in 2.3% of patients with congenital abnormalities of the kidney or urinary tract, a finding that suggests that DSTYK is a major determinant of human urinary tract development, downstream of FGF signaling. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.).

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    ABSTRACT: Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urogenital tract (CAKUT) occur in approximately 0.5% of live births and represent the most frequent cause of end-stage renal disease in neonates and children. The genetic basis of CAKUT is not well defined. To understand more fully the genetic basis of one type of CAKUT, unilateral renal agenesis (URA), we are studying inbred ACI rats, which spontaneously exhibit URA and associated urogenital anomalies at an incidence of approximately 10%. URA is inherited as an incompletely dominant trait with incomplete penetrance in crosses between ACI and Brown Norway (BN) rats and a single responsible genetic locus, designated Renag1, was previously mapped to rat chromosome 14 (RNO14). The goals of this study were to fine map Renag1, identify the causal genetic variant responsible for URA, confirm that the Renag1 variant is the sole determinant of URA in the ACI rat, and define the embryologic basis of URA in this rat model. Data presented herein localize Renag1 to a 379 kilobase (kb) interval that contains a single protein coding gene, Kit (v-kit Hardy-Zukerman 4 feline sarcoma viral oncogene homolog); identify an endogenous retrovirus-derived long terminal repeat located within Kit intron 1 as the probable causal variant; demonstrate aberrant development of the nephric duct in the anticipated number of ACI rat embryos; and demonstrate expression of Kit and Kit ligand (Kitlg) in the nephric duct. Congenic rats that harbor ACI alleles at Renag1 on the BN genetic background exhibit the same spectrum of urogenital anomalies as ACI rats, indicating that Renag1 is necessary and sufficient to elicit URA and associated urogenital anomalies. These data reveal the first genetic link between Kit and URA and illustrate the value of the ACI rat as a model for defining the mechanisms and cell types in which Kit functions during urogenital development.
    PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(2):e0118147. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0118147 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: DSTYK (Dual serine/threonine and tyrosine protein kinase) is a putative dual Ser/Thr and Tyr protein kinase with unique structural features. It is proposed that DSTYK may play important roles in brain because of its high expression in most brain areas. In the present study, a DSTYK knockout (KO) mouse line with the ablation of C-terminal of DSTYK including the kinase domain was generated to study the physiological function of DSTYK. The DSTYK KO mice are fertile and have no significant morphological defects revealed by Nissl staining compared with wildtype mice. Open field test and rotarod test showed there is no obvious difference in basic motor and balance capacity between the DSTYK homozygous KO mice and DSTYK heterozygous KO mice. In water maze test, however, the DSTYK homozygous KO mice show impaired capabilities of learning and memory compared with the DSTYK heterozygous KO mice.
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    ABSTRACT: Background The most common cause of end-stage renal disease in children can be attributed to congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT). Despite this high incidence of disease, the genetic mutations responsible for the majority of CAKUT cases remain unknown. Methods To identify novel genomic regions associated with CAKUT, we screened 178 children presenting with the entire spectrum of structural anomalies associated with CAKUT for submicroscopic chromosomal imbalances (deletions or duplications) using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarrays. Results Copy-number variation (CNV) was detected in 10.1 % (18/178) of the patients; in 6.2 % of the total cohort, novel duplications or deletions of unknown significance were identified, and the remaining 3.9 % harboured CNV of known pathogenicity. CNVs were inherited in 90 % (9/10) of the families tested. In this cohort, patients diagnosed with multicystic dysplastic kidney (30 %) and posterior urethral valves (24 %) had a higher incidence of CNV. Conclusions The genes contained in the altered genomic regions represent novel candidates for CAKUT. This study has demonstrated that a significant proportion of patients with CAKUT harbour submicroscopic chromosomal imbalances, warranting screening in clinics for CNV.
    Pediatric Nephrology 10/2014; 30(3). DOI:10.1007/s00467-014-2962-9 · 2.88 Impact Factor

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