It is increasingly recognized that cell signaling, as a chemical process, must be considered at the local, micrometer scale. Micro- and nanofabrication techniques provide access to these dimensions, with the potential to capture and manipulate the spatial complexity of intracellular signaling in experimental models. This review focuses on recent advances in adapting surface engineering for use with biomolecular systems that interface with cell signaling, particularly with respect to surfaces that interact with multiple receptor systems on individual cells. The utility of this conceptual and experimental approach is demonstrated in the context of epithelial cells and T lymphocytes, two systems whose ability to perform their physiological function is dramatically impacted by the convergence and balance of multiple signaling pathways.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone is a highly dynamic and specialized tissue, capable of regenerating itself spontaneously when afflicted by minor injuries. Nevertheless, when major lesions occur, it becomes necessary to use biomaterials, which are not only able to endure the cellular proliferation and migration, but also to substitute the original tissue or integrate itself to it. With the life expectancy growth, regenerative medicine has been gaining constant attention in the reconstructive field of dentistry and orthopedy. Focusing on broadening the therapeutic possibilities for the regeneration of injured organs, the development of biomaterials allied with the applicability of gene therapy and bone bioengineering has been receiving vast attention over the recent years. The progress of cellular and molecular biology techniques gave way to new-guided therapy possibilities. Supported by multidisciplinary activities, tissue engineering combines the interaction of physicists, chemists, biologists, engineers, biotechnologist, dentists and physicians with common goals: the search for materials that could promote and lead cell activity. A well-oriented combining of scaffolds, promoting factors, cells, together with gene therapy advances may open new avenues to bone healing in the near future. In this review, our target was to write a report bringing overall concepts on tissue bioengineering, with a special attention to decisive biological parameters for the development of biomaterials, as well as to discuss known intracellular signal transduction as a new manner to be explored within this field, aiming to predict in vitro the quality of the host cell/material and thus contributing with the development of regenerative medicine.
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 06/2014; 561. DOI:10.1016/j.abb.2014.06.019 · 3.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: When using polymer materials as scaffolds for tissue engineering or regenerative medicine applications the initial, and often lasting, interaction between cells and the material are via surfaces. Surface engineering is an important strategy in materials fabrication to control and tailor cell interactions whilst preserving desirable bulk materials properties. Surface engineering methods have been described that can strongly influence cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation and functionality. This review aims to categorise the current strategies for modifying surface chemistry and/or topography in terms of the resultant change in cell behaviour.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dynamical analysis of single-cells allows assessment of the extent and role of cell-to-cell variability, however traditional dish-and-pipette techniques have hindered single-cell analysis in quantitative biology. We developed an automated microfluidic cell culture system that generates stable diffusion-based chemokine gradients, where cells can be placed in predetermined positions, monitored via single-cell time-lapse microscopy, and subsequently be retrieved based on their migration speed and directionality for further off-chip gene expression analysis, constituting a powerful platform for multiparameter quantitative studies of single-cell chemotaxis. Using this system we studied CXCL12-directed migration of individual human primary T cells. Spatiotemporally deterministic retrieval of T cell subsets in relation to their migration speed, and subsequent analysis with microfluidic droplet digital-PCR showed that the expression level of CXCR4 -the receptor of CXCL12- underlies enhanced human T cell chemotaxis.
Lab on a Chip 12/2014; 15(5). DOI:10.1039/C4LC01038H · 6.12 Impact Factor
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