Noninvasive Assessment of Pulmonary Vascular Resistance by Doppler Echocardiography
The ratio of tricuspid regurgitation velocity (TRV) to the time-velocity integral of the right ventricular outflow tract (TVIRVOT) has been studied as a reliable measure to distinguish elevated from normal pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). The equation TRV/TVIRVOT × 10 + 0.16 (PVRecho) has been shown to provide a good noninvasive estimate of PVR. However, its role in patients with significantly elevated PVR (> 6 Wood units [WU]) has not been conclusively evaluated. The aim of this study was to establish the validity of the TRV/TVIRVOT ratio as a correlate of PVR. The role of TRV/TVIRVOT was also compared with that of a new ratio, TRV(2)/TVIRVOT, in patients with markedly elevated PVR (>6 WU).
Data from five validation studies using TRV/TVIRVOT as an estimate of PVR were compared with invasive PVR measurements (PVRcath). Multiple linear regression analyses were generated between PVRcath and both TRV/TVIRVOT and TRV(2)/TVIRVOT. Both PVRecho and a new derived regression equation based on TRV(2)/TVIRVOT: 5.19 × TRV(2)/TVIRVOT - 0.4 (PVRecho2) were compared with PVRcath using Bland-Altman analysis. Logistic models were generated, and cutoff values for both TRV/TVIRVOT and TRV(2)/TVIRVOT were obtained to predict PVR > 6 WU.
One hundred fifty patients remained in the final analysis. Linear regression analysis between PVRcath and TRV/TVIRVOT revealed a good correlation (r = 0.76, P < .0001, Z = 0.92). There was a better correlation between PVRcath and TRV(2)/TVIRVOT (r = 0.79, P < .0001, Z = -0.01) in the entire cohort as well as in patients with PVR > 6 WU. Moreover, PVRecho2 compared better with PVRcath than PVRecho using Bland-Altman analysis in the entire cohort and in patients with PVR > 6 WU. TRV(2)/TVIRVOT and TRV/TVIRVOT both predicted PVR > 6 WU with good sensitivity and specificity.
TRV/TVIRVOT is a reliable method to identify patients with elevated PVR. In patients with TRV/TVIRVOT > 0.275, PVR is likely > 6 WU, and PVRecho2 derived from TRV(2)/TVIRVOT provides an improved noninvasive estimate of PVR compared with PVRecho.
Available from: sciencedirect.com
- "Therefore, it is necessary to develop a feasible method for the non-invasive measurement of PVR. Recent reports have investigated the applicability of transthoracic Dopplerechocardiography (TTE) or cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), and some novel methods have been proposed            . However, the intrinsic limitations of each image modality compromised the accuracy and "
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ABSTRACT: Transthoracic Doppler-echocardiography (TTE) can estimate mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP) and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) reliably, and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is the best modality for non-invasive measurement of cardiac output (CO). We speculated that the combined use of TTE and CMR could provide a feasible method for non-invasive measurement of pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH).
Available from: Miquéias Lopes-Pacheco
- "One long-axis and four short-axis B-dimensional views of both ventricles were acquired to calculate the left and right ventricular areas . Pulsed-wave Doppler was used to measure pulmonary artery acceleration time (PAT), and pulmonary artery ejection time (PET) [19,20]. All parameters followed American Society of Echocardiography and European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging recommendations. "
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ABSTRACT: We sought to assess whether the effects of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) on lung inflammation and remodeling in experimental emphysema would differ according to MSC source and administration route. Emphysema was induced in C57BL/6 mice by intratracheal (IT) administration of porcine pancreatic elastase (0.1 UI) weekly for 1 month. After the last elastase instillation, saline or MSCs (1x105), isolated from either mouse bone marrow (BM), adipose tissue (AD) or lung tissue (L), were administered intravenously (IV) or IT. After 1 week, mice were euthanized. Regardless of administration route, MSCs from each source yielded: 1) decreased mean linear intercept, neutrophil infiltration, and cell apoptosis; 2) increased elastic fiber content; 3) reduced alveolar epithelial and endothelial cell damage; and 4) decreased keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC, a mouse analog of interleukin-8) and transforming growth factor-ß levels in lung tissue. In contrast with IV, IT MSC administration further reduced alveolar hyperinflation (BM-MSC) and collagen fiber content (BM-MSC and L-MSC). Intravenous administration of BM- and AD-MSCs reduced the number of M1 macrophages and pulmonary hypertension on echocardiography, while increasing vascular endothelial growth factor. Only BM-MSCs (IV¿>¿IT) increased the number of M2 macrophages. In conclusion, different MSC sources and administration routes variably reduced elastase-induced lung damage, but IV administration of BM-MSCs resulted in better cardiovascular function and change of the macrophage phenotype from M1 to M2.
Respiratory Research 10/2014; 15(1):118. DOI:10.1186/s12931-014-0118-x · 3.09 Impact Factor
Available from: Nelson B Schiller
Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography: official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography 05/2013; 26(5):479-482. DOI:10.1016/j.echo.2013.03.015 · 4.06 Impact Factor
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