To describe human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage among adult privately insured women including variation in coverage by race/ethnicity.
This cross-sectional, observational study included women 18-26 years of age with continuous enrollment in a U.S. Midwestern health insurance plan and at least one visit to a plan affiliated practice. Vaccination data came from insurance claims and the electronic medical record. Primary outcomes were: receipt of at least 1 HPV vaccine (HPV1) and completion of the 3-dose HPV vaccine series (HPV3). Coverage was described for the entire cohort and stratified by race/ethnicity. For a subset of women, automated data was compared to personal recall.
As of June 2010, among 2546 privately insured women 18-26 years, 72.7% had received their first HPV vaccine and 57.9% completed the 3-dose series. Compared to white women, African American and Asian women had significantly lower coverage for HPV1 and HPV3. There was 94.5% (95% CI: 88.5-100%) agreement between personal recall and claims/EMR for receiving HPV1.
In this cohort of privately insured women, a majority received HPV1 and more than half completed the 3-dose vaccine series. Marked disparities in receipt of HPV vaccine by race/ethnicity were observed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: These recommendations represent the first statement by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) on the use of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration on June 8, 2006. This report summarizes the epidemiology of HPV and associated diseases, describes the licensed HPV vaccine, and provides recommendations for its use for vaccination among females aged 9-26 years in the United States. Genital HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States; an estimated 6.2 million persons are newly infected every year. Although the majority of infections cause no clinical symptoms and are self-limited, persistent infection with oncogenic types can cause cervical cancer in women. HPV infection also is the cause of genital warts and is associated with other anogenital cancers. Cervical cancer rates have decreased in the United States because of widespread use of Papanicolaou testing, which can detect precancerous lesions of the cervix before they develop into cancer; nevertheless, during 2007, an estimated 11,100 new cases will be diagnosed and approximately 3,700 women will die from cervical cancer. In certain countries where cervical cancer screening is not routine, cervical cancer is a common cancer in women. The licensed HPV vaccine is composed of the HPV L1 protein, the major capsid protein of HPV. Expression of the L1 protein in yeast using recombinant DNA technology produces noninfectious virus-like particles (VLP) that resemble HPV virions. The quadrivalent HPV vaccine is a mixture of four HPV type-specific VLPs prepared from the L1 proteins of HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 combined with an aluminum adjuvant. Clinical trials indicate that the vaccine has high efficacy in preventing persistent HPV infection, cervical cancer precursor lesions, vaginal and vulvar cancer precursor lesions, and genital warts caused by HPV types 6, 11, 16, or 18 among females who have not already been infected with the respective HPV type. No evidence exists of protection against disease caused by HPV types with which females are infected at the time of vaccination. However, females infected with one or more vaccine HPV types before vaccination would be protected against disease caused by the other vaccine HPV types. The vaccine is administered by intramuscular injection, and the recommended schedule is a 3-dose series with the second and third doses administered 2 and 6 months after the first dose. The recommended age for vaccination of females is 11-12 years. Vaccine can be administered as young as age 9 years. Catch-up vaccination is recommended for females aged 13--26 years who have not been previously vaccinated. Vaccination is not a substitute for routine cervical cancer screening, and vaccinated females should have cervical cancer screening as recommended.
MMWR. Recommendations and reports: Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Recommendations and reports / Centers for Disease Control 04/2007; 56(RR-2):1-24.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors studied the characteristics of those who initiated the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine versus those who did
not. Female members of Kaiser Permanente Southern California aged 9–26 years were identified and assessed for HPV vaccination
between October 2006 and March 2008. Multivariable log-binomial regression was used to examine the association of the following
factors with vaccine initiation: 1) demographics, 2) provider characteristics, 3) health care utilization, 4) women's health-related
conditions, and 5) selected immune-related conditions. The study included 285,265 females. All analyses were stratified by
2 age groups: 9–17 years and 18–26 years. Black race (relative risk (RR)9–17 years = 0.93, RR18–26 years = 0.82), having a male primary care provider (RR9–17 years = 0.93, RR18–26 years = 0.84), and history of hospitalizations were associated with a lower likelihood of vaccine initiation. Higher neighborhood
income level, physician office visits, and history of influenza vaccination (RR9–17 years = 1.20, RR18–26 years = 1.34) were associated with higher HPV vaccine uptake. Those with a history of sexually transmitted diseases were more likely
and those with immune-related conditions were not less likely to initiate the HPV vaccine. These findings are helpful for
interpreting the results of observational safety studies and providing insights for developing targeted HPV vaccination programs.
American journal of epidemiology 02/2010; 171(3):357-67. DOI:10.1093/aje/kwp365 · 5.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the characteristics associated with uptake of HPV vaccine by 19-26 year old women seen in primary care university-based clinics. Of the 11,545 women analyzed only 18% had initiated the 3-dose vaccine series. Series completion among the sample overall was only 10% in the 30 month study period. Decreased series initiation was associated with older age, public insurance, white race and non-family medicine specialty. Decreased series completion was associated with public insurance and African American race. Utilization disparities by race and insurance worsened over time suggesting that the highest risk populations of women were not getting vaccinated.
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