Compact 1 × N thermo-optic switches based on silicon photonic wire waveguides

The University of Tokyo, Tōkyō, Japan
Optics Express (Impact Factor: 3.49). 12/2005; 13(25):10109-10114. DOI: 10.1364/OPEX.13.010109


Using silicon photonic wire waveguides, we constructed compact 1 × 1, 1 × 2, and 1 × 4 Mach-Zehnder interferometer type optical switches on a silicon-on-insulator substrate and demonstrated their switching operations through the thermo-optic effect. These switches were smaller than 140 × 65, 85 × 30, and 190 × 75 μm, respectively. At a 1550-nm wavelength, we obtained an extinction ratio larger than 30 dB, a switching power as low as 90 mW, and a switching response time of less than 100 μs. Furthermore, switching operations were successfully demonstrated for the 1 × 4 switch.

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    • "However, the promises of technologies and applications are diverse and multidisciplinary, in early stages of development, and the opportunities are spread throughout the value chain. There are different challenges for nanophotonics (Ghoshal et al., 2007; Chu et al., 2005). Some of them are  Market strategy Nanophotonics has the potential to improve optoelectronic products in a wide array of new applications, including multi target markets each worth few billions of dollars. "

    Optoelectronics - Devices and Applications, 10/2011; , ISBN: 978-953-307-576-1
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    • "Consequently, nonlinear optical effects, including stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), self-phase modulation (SPM), cross-phase modulation (XPM), two-photon absorption (TPA), and four-wave mixing (FWM), occur employing low input power equivalent to that typical in optical communications [4] [5]. Adopting Si-wire waveguides different devices have been realized as reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexers (ROADM) [6], micro-ring resonators [7], arrayed waveguide gratings (AWG) [8], thermo-optic switches [9], polarization splitter [10], Raman optical amplifiers [5] and wavelength converters [11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Optical directional couplers based on SOI-wire waveguides have been modelled by a semi-analytical approach based on the Coupled Mode Theory and Finite Element Method. The modelling is used to obtain analytically optical power at the parallel and cross ports by utilizing numerically calculated coupling coefficients. Geometrical dimensions of the couplers have been optimized to obtain a polarization-independent behaviour. The influence of non-vertical sidewalls on the coupler performance has also been addressed.
    The Open Optics Journal 02/2007; 2(1). DOI:10.2174/1874328500802010006
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    • "Microscopic views of the switches are shown in Fig. 14(a) and (b), respectively. The 1 × 1 and 1 × 2 switches were composed of a Y-splitter for dividing the input light beam, a thermooptically controlled MZI for tuning the phase of the propagating light beam, and a 3-dB coupler with a Y-splitter for the 1 × 1 switch or with a DC for the 1 × 2 switch [27]. All of them were based on Si photonic wire waveguides on an SOI substrate . "
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    ABSTRACT: Si photonic wire waveguides are attractive for constructing various optical devices that are extremely small because the waveguides can be bent with extremely small curvatures of less than a few micrometers of bending radius. We have fabricated optical directional couplers with the waveguides and demonstrated their fundamental characteristics. Their coupling length was extremely short, several micrometers, because of strong optical coupling between the waveguide cores. We have also demonstrated wavelength-demultiplexing functions for these devices with a long coupled waveguide. Optical outputs from a device with a 100-mum-long coupled waveguide changed reciprocally with a 20-nm wavelength spacing between the parallel and cross ports. We also demonstrated the operation of ultrasmall optical add-drop multiplexers (OADMs) with Bragg grating reflectors made up of the waveguides. The dropping wavelength bandwidth of the OADMs was less than 0.7 nm, and these dropping wavelengths could be precisely designed by adjusting the grating period. Using the Si photonic wire waveguide, we have also demonstrated thermo-optic switches. Metal thin-film heaters were evaporated onto the branch of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer that incorporated the waveguide to achieve switching operations by thermo-optic effects. In these switching operations, we observed more than 30 dB of extinction ratio, less than 90 mW of switching power, and less than 100 mus of switching speed
    IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 12/2006; 12(6):1371-1379. DOI:10.1109/JSTQE.2006.880611 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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