Compact 1 × N thermo-optic switches based on silicon photonic wire waveguides

The University of Tokyo, Tōkyō, Japan
Optics Express (Impact Factor: 3.53). 12/2005; 13(25):10109-10114. DOI: 10.1364/OPEX.13.010109

ABSTRACT Using silicon photonic wire waveguides, we constructed compact 1 × 1, 1 × 2, and 1 × 4 Mach-Zehnder interferometer type optical switches on a silicon-on-insulator substrate and demonstrated their switching operations through the thermo-optic effect. These switches were smaller than 140 × 65, 85 × 30, and 190 × 75 μm, respectively. At a 1550-nm wavelength, we obtained an extinction ratio larger than 30 dB, a switching power as low as 90 mW, and a switching response time of less than 100 μs. Furthermore, switching operations were successfully demonstrated for the 1 × 4 switch.

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    ABSTRACT: Optical directional couplers based on SOI-wire waveguides have been modelled by a semi-analytical approach based on the Coupled Mode Theory and Finite Element Method. The modelling is used to obtain analytically optical power at the parallel and cross ports by utilizing numerically calculated coupling coefficients. Geometrical dimensions of the couplers have been optimized to obtain a polarization-independent behaviour. The influence of non-vertical sidewalls on the coupler performance has also been addressed.
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    ABSTRACT: Si photonic wire waveguides are attractive for constructing various optical devices that are extremely small because the waveguides can be bent with extremely small curvatures of less than a few micrometers of bending radius. We have fabricated optical directional couplers with the waveguides and demonstrated their fundamental characteristics. Their coupling length was extremely short, several micrometers, because of strong optical coupling between the waveguide cores. We have also demonstrated wavelength-demultiplexing functions for these devices with a long coupled waveguide. Optical outputs from a device with a 100-mum-long coupled waveguide changed reciprocally with a 20-nm wavelength spacing between the parallel and cross ports. We also demonstrated the operation of ultrasmall optical add-drop multiplexers (OADMs) with Bragg grating reflectors made up of the waveguides. The dropping wavelength bandwidth of the OADMs was less than 0.7 nm, and these dropping wavelengths could be precisely designed by adjusting the grating period. Using the Si photonic wire waveguide, we have also demonstrated thermo-optic switches. Metal thin-film heaters were evaporated onto the branch of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer that incorporated the waveguide to achieve switching operations by thermo-optic effects. In these switching operations, we observed more than 30 dB of extinction ratio, less than 90 mW of switching power, and less than 100 mus of switching speed
    IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 12/2006; 12(6):1371-1379. DOI:10.1109/JSTQE.2006.880611 · 3.47 Impact Factor


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