APOE genotype and MRI markers of cerebrovascular disease: Systematic review and meta-analysis
ABSTRACT We aimed to examine the association of APOE ε genotype with MRI markers of cerebrovascular disease (CVD): white matter hyperintensities, brain infarcts, and cerebral microbleeds.
We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of 42 cross-sectional or longitudinal studies identified in PubMed from 1966 to June 2012 (n = 29,965). This included unpublished data from 3 population-based studies: 3C-Dijon, Framingham Heart Study, and Sydney Memory and Ageing Study. When necessary, authors were contacted to provide effect estimates for the meta-analysis.
APOE ε4 carrier status and APOE ε44 genotype were associated with increasing white matter hyperintensity burden (sample size-weighted z score meta-analysis [meta]-p = 0.0034 and 0.0030) and presence of cerebral microbleeds (meta odds ratio [OR] = 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.07, 1.43], p = 0.004, and 1.87 [1.26, 2.78], p = 0.002), especially lobar. APOE ε2 carrier status was associated with increasing white matter hyperintensity load (z score meta-p = 0.00053) and risk of brain infarct (meta OR = 1.41[1.09, 1.81], p = 0.008).
APOE ε4 and APOE ε2 were associated with increasing burden in MRI markers for both hemorrhagic and ischemic CVD. While the association of APOE ε4 with an increased burden of CVD could be partly contributing to the relationship between APOE ε4 and AD, APOE ε2 was associated with MRI markers of CVD in the opposite direction compared to AD.
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ABSTRACT: Although Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease, the etiology of AD is not well understood. In some cases, genetic factors explain AD risk, but a high percentage of late-onset AD is unexplained. The fact that AD is associated with a number of physical and systemic manifestations suggests that AD is a multifactorial disease that affects both the CNS and periphery. Interestingly, a common feature of many systemic processes linked to AD is involvement in energy metabolism. The goals of this review are to 1) explore the evidence that peripheral processes contribute to AD risk, 2) explore ways that AD modulates whole-body changes, and 3) discuss the role of genetics, mitochondria, and vascular mechanisms as underlying factors that could mediate both central and peripheral manifestations of AD. Despite efforts to strictly define AD as a homogeneous CNS disease, there may be no single etiologic pathway leading to the syndrome of AD dementia. Rather, the neurodegenerative process may involve some degree of baseline genetic risk that is modified by external risk factors. Continued research into the diverse but related processes linked to AD risk is necessary for successful development of disease -modifying therapies.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 04/2014; 1842(9). DOI:10.1016/j.bbadis.2014.04.012 · 4.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε genotype has previously been significantly associated with cognitive, brain imaging, and Alzheimer's disease-related phenotypes (e.g., age of onset). In the TOMM40 gene, the rs10524523 ("523") variable length poly-T repeat polymorphism has more recently been associated with similar ph/enotypes, although the allelic directions of these associations have varied between initial reports. Using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging tractography, the present study aimed to investigate whether there are independent effects of apolipoprotein E (APOE) and TOMM40 genotypes on human brain white matter integrity in a community-dwelling sample of older adults, the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (mean age = 72.70 years, standard deviation = 0.74, N approximately = 640-650; for most analyses). Some nominally significant effects were observed (i.e., covariate-adjusted differences between genotype groups at p < 0.05). For APOE, deleterious effects of ε4 "risk" allele presence (vs. absence) were found in the right ventral cingulum and left inferior longitudinal fasciculus. To test for biologically independent effects of the TOMM40 523 repeat, participants were stratified into APOE genotype subgroups, so that any significant effects could not be attributed to APOE variation. In participants with the APOE ε3/ε4 genotype, effects of TOMM40 523 status were found in the left uncinate fasciculus, left rostral cingulum, left ventral cingulum, and a general factor of white matter integrity. In all 4 of these tractography measures, carriers of the TOMM40 523 "short" allele showed lower white matter integrity when compared with carriers of the "long" and "very-long" alleles. Most of these effects survived correction for childhood intelligence test scores and vascular disease history, though only the effect of TOMM40 523 on the left ventral cingulum integrity survived correction for false discovery rate. The effects of APOE in this older population are more specific and restricted compared with those reported in previous studies, and the effects of TOMM40 on white matter integrity appear to be novel, although replication is required in large independent samples.Neurobiology of aging 01/2014; 35(6). DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2014.01.006 · 4.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background We previously demonstrated that parietal lobe white matter hyperintensities (WMH) increase the risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we examined whether individuals with apolipoprotein E gene (APOE ε4) have increased parietal WMH volume. Methods Participants were from the Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project (WHICAP; n = 694, 47 with dementia) in northern Manhattan and the Etude Santé Psychologique Prévalence Risques et Traitement study (ESPRIT; n = 539, 8 with dementia) in Montpellier. The association between regional WMH and APOE ε4 was examined separately in each group and then in a combined analysis. Results In WHICAP, ε4 carriers had higher WMH volume particularly in parietal and occipital lobes. In ESPRIT, ε4 carriers had elevated WMH particularly in parietal and temporal lobes. In the combined analysis, ε4 carriers had higher WMH in parietal and occipital lobes. Increased WMH volume was associated with increased frequency of dementia irrespective of APOE ε4 status; those with the ε4 were more likely to have dementia if they also had increased parietal WMH. Conclusions APOE ε4 is associated with increased parietal lobe WMH.Alzheimer's and Dementia 10/2014; 10(6). DOI:10.1016/j.jalz.2014.07.155 · 17.47 Impact Factor