Perioperative antibiotics for prevention of acute endophthalmitis after cataract surgery
ABSTRACT Endophthalmitis is a severe inflammation of the anterior and/or posterior chambers of the eye that may be sterile or associated with infection. It is a potentially vision-threatening complication of cataract surgery. Prophylactic measures for endophthalmitis are targeted against various sources of infection.
The objective of this review was to evaluate the effects of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis for endophthalmitis following cataract surgery.
We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 10), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE, (January 1950 to October 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to October 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to October 2012), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 25 October 2012. We also searched for additional studies that cited any included trials using the Science Citation Index.
We included randomized controlled trials that enrolled adults undergoing cataract surgery (any method and incision type) for lens opacities due to any origin. Trials that evaluated preoperative antibiotics, intraoperative (intracameral, subconjunctival or systemic) or postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis for acute endophthalmitis were included. We did not include studies that evaluated antiseptic preoperative preparations using agents such as povidone iodine, nor did we include studies that evaluated antibiotics for treating acute endophthalmitis after cataract surgery.
Two review authors independently reviewed abstracts and full-text articles for eligibility, assessed the risk of bias for each included study, and abstracted data.
Four studies met the inclusion criteria for this review, including 100,876 adults and 131 endophthalmitis cases. While the sample size is very large, the heterogeneity of the study designs and modes of antibiotic delivery made it impossible to conduct a formal meta-analysis. Interventions investigated in the studies included the utility of adding vancomycin and gentamycin to the irrigating solution compared with standard balanced saline solution irrigation alone, use of intracameral cefuroxime and/or topical levofloxacin perioperatively, periocular penicillin injections and topical chloramphenicol-sulphadimidine drops compared with topical antibiotics alone, and mode of antibiotic delivery (subconjunctival versus retrobulbar injections). Two studies with adequate sample sizes to evaluate a rare outcome found reduced risk of endophthalmitis with antibiotic injections during surgery compared with topical antibiotics alone: risk ratio (RR) 0.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12 to 0.92 (periocular penicillin versus topical chloramphenicol-sulphadimidine) and RR 0.21, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.74 (intracameral cefuroxime versus topical levofloxacin). Another study found no significant difference in endophthalmitis when comparing subconjunctival versus retrobulbar antibiotic injections (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.32). The fourth study which compared irrigation with balanced salt solution (BSS) alone versus BSS with antibiotics was not sufficiently powered to detect differences in endophthalmitis between groups. The risk of bias among studies was low to unclear due to information not being reported.
Multiple measures for preventing endophthalmitis following cataract surgery have been studied. One of the included studies, the ESCRS (European Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgeons) study, was performed using contemporary surgical technique and employed cefuroxime, an antibiotic commonly used in many parts of the world. Clinical trials with rare outcomes require very large sample sizes and are quite costly to conduct; thus, it is unlikely that additional clinical trials will be conducted to evaluate currently available prophylaxis. Practitioners should rely on current evidence to make informed decisions regarding prophylaxis choices.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the ocular bacterial flora in patients scheduled to undergo cataract surgery and compare the antibacterial effects of besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension 0.6% and moxifloxacin ophthalmic solution 0.5% in these patients. This was a prospective, randomized, laboratory-masked clinical trial. Patients received besifloxacin or moxifloxacin "quater in die" or QID (four times a day) for 3 days before cataract surgery in the surgical eye and 1 hour before surgery in the nonsurgical fellow eye. Conjunctival and eyelid swabs were obtained from both eyes at baseline and after treatment, on the day of surgery (Visit 2). Swabs were processed for bacterial colony counts (in terms of colony-forming units) and species identification. In vitro antibiotic susceptibilities of isolates were determined using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoints. Fifty-nine patients (n=28 besifloxacin, n=31 moxifloxacin) completed the study. The majority (73%) of conjunctival samples were culture negative at baseline. The most frequent isolates were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS, 89%), specifically Staphylococcus epidermidis (72%). Both fluoroquinolones reduced the lid CFU values when administered QID for 3 days (P≤0.019), but only besifloxacin reduced the lid CFU estimate 1 hour following instillation of a single drop (P=0.039). Fewer besifloxacin-treated eyes had lids that were culture positive for CoNS at Visit 2 compared with moxifloxacin-treated eyes regardless of dosing regimen (P≤0.03). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC90) of besifloxacin against methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE) was eightfold lower than that of moxifloxacin. Besifloxacin appeared more effective in reducing bacterial counts on eyelids of patients undergoing cataract surgery, with significant reductions as early as 1 hour postdose, compared with moxifloxacin. Besifloxacin was more active in vitro against MRSE.Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.) 01/2015; 9:843-52. DOI:10.2147/OPTH.S83162
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ABSTRACT: We conducted a cohort study to evaluate post-cataract surgery endophthalmitis rates in relation to prophylactic intracameral moxifloxacin administration. A total of 2332 patients (2674 eyes) who underwent phacoemulsification by a single surgeon from January 2007 through December 2012 were included in the study. A total of 1056 eyes did not receive intracameral prophylactic moxifloxacin and the antibiotic was injected in 1618 eyes. The incidence of presumed postoperative endophthalmitis in the 2 groups was calculated. The rate of presumed infectious endophthalmitis after cataract surgery between January 2007 and June 2009 (without intracameral moxifloxacin) was 0.094%. The rate in the second period, from July 2009 to December 2012 (with prophylactic intracameral moxifloxacin), was 0%. In our patients, a decline in the incidence of presumed infectious postoperative endophthalmitis appeared to be associated with the application of intracameral moxifloxacin.Opthalmology and Eye Diseases 01/2014; 6:1-4. DOI:10.4137/OED.S13102
- Ophthalmology 03/2014; 121(3):619–621. DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2013.12.033 · 6.17 Impact Factor