Economic Analysis of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Production in Tanzania

Aquaculture and Fisheries, University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff, PBF, Arkansas, United States
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society (Impact Factor: 0.73). 12/2006; 37(4):464-473. DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-7345.2006.00059.x


Abstract In Tanzania, Nile tilapia culture is a promising aquaculture enterprise. Information on production costs could assist fish farmers in economic and financial planning. Economic profitability of small-scale Nile tilapia production in Tanzania is analyzed using a model that simulates individual fish growth and takes into account fish population dynamics in the pond. The results suggest that the current practiced mixed-sex tilapia culture without predation is not economically sustainable. Extension efforts should be geared toward developing a Nile tilapia production system that is based on a hand-sexed all-male tilapia. Meanwhile catfish can be introduced in ponds to control overcrowding in mixed-sex tilapia culture without predation. Studies to determine optimal pond sizes, availability of feed, and a quality fingerling supply chain are also fundamental for developing a sustainable Nile tilapia production system in Tanzania. Under improved Nile tilapia production systems, returns are high enough to justify investment through borrowed capital from formal institutions.

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Available from: Aloyce R Kaliba, Jun 27, 2015
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    • "Its production in developing countries occurs primarily in semi-intensive ponds with fertilization and/or supplementary feeding. In Tanzania, more than 95 % of fish farmers culture Nile tilapia in earthen ponds under mixed-sex culture (Kaliba et al. 2006). One of the main problems facing the culture of mixed-sex Nile tilapia in earthen ponds is early maturation leading to prolific breeding and production of high percentage of recruits (Offem et al. 2009; Chakraborty et al. 2011; Yakubu et al. 2012; Dagne et al. 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Prolific breeding and production of high percentage of recruits are main problems in mixed-sex Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture in earthen ponds. The current study assessed the efficiency of different sizes of African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in controlling recruitment in mixed-sex Nile tilapia cultured in tanks and its effect on growth performance, percentage survival and yield. Three treatments consisting of triplicate ponds stocked with mixed-sex Nile tilapia in monoculture and in polyculture with large (62.50 ± 3.26 g) and small (40.00 ± 2.68 g) African sharptooth catfish were fed on a 297.50 g kg-1 crude protein diet for 126 days. Results showed that, the number of recruits was significantly lower in larger African sharptooth catfish predator than smaller ones and monoculture of Nile tilapia. Polyculture with larger African sharptooth catfish resulted in significantly higher growth performance of Nile tilapia. Large African sharptooth catfish in polyculture reduced the amount of small, low-value recruits, while the yield of large and high value Nile tilapia was increased. This study revealed that fish farmers can reduce prolific breeding, obtain higher growth performance and produce larger size of marketable Nile tilapia by predominantly stocking ponds with large African sharptooth catfish predator of at least 60 g.
    International Aquatic Research 01/2015; 7(1):63-73. DOI:10.1007/s40071-014-0093-3
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    • "This paper aims at enhancing the utilization of aquaculture productivity, through value addition and market innovations of products for tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). The species were chosen because of their inherited characteristics of environmental tolerance, and superior growth (Bardach et al., 1972; Kaliba et al., 2006). In Lake Victoria region, tilapia is the most preferred fish species by most fish consumers (Abila, 2003; SEDAWOG, 1999). "
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    ABSTRACT: This paper articulates the empirical evidence on consumer taste preference and purchase intent of value added products of farmed tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). To meet the study objective, 150 fish consumers in Nyamagana district, Mwanza tasted various fish products including fishballs, samosa, pie and hot-smoked fish. A 3- point Likert scale was used to rank the taste and purchase intent for each product. Percentages and frequency distribution were calculated for descriptive analysis. Kruskal–Wallis test was performed for statistical analysis to find out the significant differences between consumer preference to the taste and willingness to purchase the fish products. Subsequently, Mann-Whitney U test was performed for post hoc tests. Results indicate that, the consumers’ taste preference between African catfish products were significantly different (H (3) = 11.40, p < 0.05) but there was no significant difference on the tilapia products (H (3) = 7.04, p > 0.05). Furthermore, no significant difference was observed on the purchase intent of all products for the two species (H (3) = 4.090, p > 0.05 for tilapia products, and H (3) = 2.953, p > 0.05 for African catfish products). Generally, the consumers accepted the taste of all products, despite the differences exhibited for the African catfish products. Training and promotion of value addition for farmed fish is therefore recommended to improve fish consumption as well as enhancing market performance for the aquaculture industry. Key words: Value addition; farmed fish; taste; purchase intent; Lake Victoria region
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    • "In many countries, native predators have been commonly used to control tilapia recruitment (Milstein et al., 2000). For African countries, for example, a simulation model for the production of Nile tilapia in mixed, all-male and in polyculture with a predator (African catfish, Clarias gariepinus or African snakehead, Parachanna obscura) has been developed (de Graaf et al., 2005) and run with data from Tanzania (Kaliba et al., 2006) and Kenya (Kaliba et al., 2007), in order to determine sustainable methods under local conditions. The aspects that need to be considered when using polyculture of tilapia with a predator are: good quality feed supply for tilapia, availability of predator fingerlings and size and feeding habits of the predator (Fagbenro, 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to test polyculture of Nile tilapia and the native Mayan cichlid, as an alternative production method of tilapia. The experiment had a 2 × 4 factorial design: the first factor was the population of tilapia (mixed-sex and 95% males) and the second factor was the proportion of Nile tilapia: Mayan cichlid (3:1, 5:1, 7:1 and 1:0). Proportion of 1:0 was tilapia monoculture. At stocking, tilapias were 11 weeks old and weighed 24.0 g and Mayan cichlids weighed 5.0 g. Recirculating water systems were used, with 24 fiberglass tanks 1 m3 with permanent water flow (7 L min− 1) and aeration. Each treatment had 3 replicates distributed randomly, and 24 fish were introduced in each tank (30 fish m− 3). The experiment lasted 21 weeks, until tilapia reached marketable size. Fish were fed with extruded formulated diets for tilapia (40% and 30% crude protein). Daily feeding rate was restricted to between 4% and 1.8% of the fish biomass. Temperature, DO and pH (28.0 ± 1.1 °C, 5.2 ± 1.2 mg L− 1 and 7.9 ± 0.2) were within the appropriate ranges for growth, and TAN, nitrites and total alkalinity (0.29 ± 0.22 mg L− 1, 0.04 ± 0.03 mg L− 1 and 238 ± 27 mg L− 1) were within safe ranges. Average survival was high (99%) and no differences were found between populations and among proportions. Nile tilapia Stirling strain showed early (45 g after 3 experimental weeks) sexual maturation and growth dimorphism. Significantly better total yield, FCR and final tilapia body weight were obtained in the 95% male population (9.26 kg m− 3, 1.39 and 383 g) than in the mixed-sex population (7.70 kg m− 3, 1.52 and 315 g). The presence of the Mayan cichlid did not affect tilapia performance. The final weight of Mayan cichlid was significantly higher in the mixed-sex tilapia population (45.9 g) than in the 95% male population (34.4 g). Mayan cichlid growth was inversely proportional to its density, with final weights of 45.5 g, 39.0 g and 34.3 g (7:1 > 5:1 > 3:1). The differences in Mayan cichlid growth are associated with intraspecific competition for available tilapia larvae. Mouth brooding tilapia females with eggs or larvae were observed in both tilapia populations and in all proportions. When fish were weighed some tilapia females released their larvae in the tanks, and both Mayan cichlid and tilapia males were observed preying on them.
    Aquaculture 01/2014; s 418–419:26–31. DOI:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2013.09.035 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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