Mortality-related factors disparity among Iranian deceased children aged 1-59 months according to the medical activities in emergency units: National mortality surveillance system

Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Child Growth and Development Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
Journal of research in medical sciences (Impact Factor: 0.61). 12/2012; 17(12):1096-101.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To determine disparity in mortality-related factors in 1-59 months children across Iran using hospital records of emergency units.
After designing and validating a national questionnaire for mortality data collection of children 1-59 months, all 40 medical universities has been asked to fill in the questionnaires and return to the main researcher in the Ministry of Health and Medical Education. Age and sex of deceased children, the type of health center, staying more than 2 h in emergency unit, the reason of prolonged stay in emergency, having emergency (risk) signs, vaccination, need to blood transfusion, need to electroshock and so on have also been collected across the country. There was also a comparison of children based on their BMI. Chi-square test has been applied for nominal and ordinal variables. ANOVA and t-student test have been used for measuring the difference of continuous variables among groups.
Mortality in 1-59 months children was unequally distributed across Iran. The average month of entrance to hospital was June, the average day was 16(th) of month, and the average hour of entrance to hospital was 14:00. The average of month, day and hour for discharge was July, 16, and 14:00, respectively. The hour of discharge was statistically significant between children with and without risk signs. More than half (54%) of patients had referred to educational hospital emergency units. There were no statistically significant differences between children with and without emergency signs. There were statistically significant differences between children with and without emergency signs in age less than 24 months (0.034), nutrition situation (P = 0.031), recommendation for referring (P = 0.013), access to electroshock facilities (P = 0.026), and having successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (P = 0.01).
This study is one of the first to show the distribution of the disparity of early childhood mortality-related factors within a developing country. Our results suggest that disparity in 1-59 months mortality based on hospital records in emergency units needs more attention by policy-makers. It is advisable to conduct provincially representative surveys to provide recent estimates of hospital access disparities in emergency units and to allow monitoring over time.

Download full-text


Available from: Masoud Amiri, Jun 13, 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Childhood mortality remains an important subject, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where levels are still unacceptably high. To achieve the set Millennium Development Goals 4, calls for comprehensive application of the proven cost-effective interventions. Understanding spatial clustering of childhood mortality can provide a guide in targeting the interventions in a more strategic approach to the population where mortality is highest and the interventions are most likely to make an impact. Annual child mortality rates were calculated for each village, using person-years observed as the denominator. Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic was used for the identification and testing of childhood mortality clusters. All under-five deaths that occurred within a 10-year period from 1997 to 2006 were included in the analysis. Villages were used as units of clusters; all 25 health and demographic surveillance sites (HDSS) villages in the Ifakara health and demographic surveillance area were included. Of the 10 years of analysis, statistically significant spatial clustering was identified in only 2 years (1998 and 2001). In 1998, the statistically significant cluster (p < 0.01) was composed of nine villages. A total of 106 childhood deaths were observed against an expected 77.3. The other statistically significant cluster (p < 0.05) identified in 2001 was composed of only one village. In this cluster, 36 childhood deaths were observed compared to 20.3 expected. Purely temporal analysis indicated that the year 2003 was a significant cluster (p < 0.05). Total deaths were 393 and expected were 335.8. Spatial-temporal analysis showed that nine villages were identified as statistically significant clusters (p < 0.05) for the period covering January 1997-December 1998. Total observed deaths in this cluster were 205 while 150.7 were expected. There is evidence of spatial clustering in childhood mortality within the Ifakara HDSS. Further investigations are needed to explore the source of clustering and identify strategies of reaching the cluster population with the existing effective interventions. However, that should happen alongside delivery of interventions to the broader population.
    Global Health Action 08/2010; 3. DOI:10.3402/gha.v3i0.5254 · 1.65 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Observations in Nigeria have indicated polio vaccination refusal related to religion that ultimately affected child morbidity and mortality. This study assessed the role of religion in under-five (0-59 months) mortality using a cross-sectional, nationally representative sample of 7,620 women aged 15-49 years from the 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey and included 6,029 children. Results show that mother's affiliation to Traditional indigenous religion is significantly associated with increased under-five mortality. Multivariable modelling demonstrated that this association is explained by differential use of maternal and child health services, specifically attendance to prenatal care. To reduce child health inequity, these results need to be incorporated in the formulation of child health policies geared towards achieving a high degree of attendance to prenatal care, irrespective of religious affiliation.
    Journal of Religion and Health 10/2009; 48(3):290-304. DOI:10.1007/s10943-008-9197-7 · 1.02 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Those concerned with poverty and health have sometimes viewed equity and human rights as abstract concepts with little practical application, and links between health, equity and human rights have not been examined systematically. Examination of the concepts of poverty, equity, and human rights in relation to health and to each other demonstrates that they are closely linked conceptually and operationally and that each provides valuable, unique guidance for health institutions' work. Equity and human rights perspectives can contribute concretely to health institutions' efforts to tackle poverty and health, and focusing on poverty is essential to operationalizing those commitments. Both equity and human rights principles dictate the necessity to strive for equal opportunity for health for groups of people who have suffered marginalization or discrimination. Health institutions can deal with poverty and health within a framework encompassing equity and human rights concerns in five general ways: (1) institutionalizing the systematic and routine application of equity and human rights perspectives to all health sector actions; (2) strengthening and extending the public health functions, other than health care, that create the conditions necessary for health; (3) implementing equitable health care financing, which should help reduce poverty while increasing access for the poor; (4) ensuring that health services respond effectively to the major causes of preventable ill-health among the poor and disadvantaged; and (5) monitoring, advocating and taking action to address the potential health equity and human rights implications of policies in all sectors affecting health, not only the health sector.
    Bulletin of the World Health Organisation 02/2003; 81(7):539-45. DOI:10.1590/S0042-96862003000700013 · 5.11 Impact Factor
Show more