[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The standard narrative in the history of the life sciences focuses on the rise of experimentalism since the late nineteenth century and the concomitant decline of natural history. Here, I propose to reexamine this story by concentrating on a specific set of material and cognitive practices centered on collections. I show that these have been central for the production of knowledge not only in natural history, from the Renaissance to the present, but also in the experimental sciences. Reframing the history of the life sciences in this way makes historical continuities visible and raises new possibilities to contextualize recent developments in science, such as the proliferation of databases and their growing use.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Given that social studies pedagogy often runs in direct opposition to how students best learn, social studies teacher preparation must intervene by providing teachers robust experiences for inquiry, interpretation, creation, and personal meaning making. Digital history represents an area of innovation in social studies that can be a useful context for providing such interventions. This research applies a design-based methodology to develop a teacher education activity that reflects research on digital history and how students learn best by constructing and extending prior knowledge, processing information into knowledge, and scaffolding. Design-based research has proven to be suitable as an intervention for classroom settings in that it can be rapidly refined in response to ongoing research on an intervention. The research asked what methods and tools can teacher educators use to promote digital history in their classrooms. Through the project, 200 teacher education students, over four iterative design phases, learned to process historical information into knowledge using technology to communicate refined versions of their knowledge to outside audiences. Seven design factors and six commonalities and differences were identified as influencing the design process. The results of this design-based research informed the development of generalizations and guidelines for designing similar digital history projects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: How are transformations in newswork intersecting with changes in the monitoring of reader behavior and new technologies of audience measurement? How, in short, are journalistic ‘visions of the audience’ shifting in the online era, and how are they enabling particular editorial practices? This article explores a provocative tension between the now common rhetorical invocation of the news audience as a ‘productive and generative’ entity, and the simultaneous, increasingly common institutional reduction of the audience to a quantifiable, rationalizable, largely consumptive aggregate. The first half of article reviews the literature on the relationship between audience understanding and newsroom practices. The second half of the article is comprised of an ethnographic analysis of the manner by which increasingly prominent and widespread techniques of audience measurement and quantification interact with the newsroom rhetoric of the active, generative audience. The article concludes with some thoughts regarding the role played by audience quantification and rationalization in shifting newswork practices. It argues that the underlying rhetoric of the active audience can be seen as laying the groundwork for a vision of the professional reporter that is less autonomous in his or her news decisions and increasingly reliant on audience metrics as a supplement to news judgment.
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