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Airborne Ganoderma basidiospores in a country with desert environment

King Saud University, Ar Riyāḑ, Ar Riyāḑ, Saudi Arabia
Grana (Impact Factor: 0.94). 06/2004; 43(2):111-115. DOI: 10.1080/00173130410019613

ABSTRACT Aerobiological studies to identify Ganoderma basidiospores were conducted using Burkard Volumetric 7-Day Recording Sampler (Burkard Manufacturing Co. Ltd., England) at three separate cities in Saudi Arabia. At one site, Jizan, close to the coast of Red Sea, up to 17% of all basidiospores counted were identified as Ganoderma spp. while less than 1% Ganoderma spp. were identified at the two non-coastal sites. A clear seasonal pattern from late autumn to early summer (October-March) with a peak in December was recorded at Jizan and the maximum concentration of Ganoderma basidiospores reached 1.9×103 m−3 in December followed by 1.2×103 m−3 in January. The diurnal pattern of Ganoderma spore concentrations, when averaged over the year had late-evening maxima (a nocturnal pattern). However, other sites that showed low concentrations of Ganoderma basidiospores did not exhibit any peak or a high maximal level. The study demonstrates that even in a desert environment, airborne activities of Ganoderma basidiospores can be recorded. The impact of Ganoderma on asthmatic patients, particularly in such environments, needs to be investigated.

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    • "In recent years, an increasing number of studies on aerial abundance of Ganoderma spores have been conducted in Europe and North America (Cutten et al., 1988; Levetin, 1990, 1991; Hasnain, 1993; Halwagy, 1994; Li and Kendrick, 1995; Mitakakis and Quest, 2001; Oliveira et al., 2009). These studies focused mainly on the influence of meteorological parameters on daily and seasonal variation of spores (Levetin, 1990; Craig and Levetin, 2000; Hasnain et al., 2004), construction of forecasting models (Grinn-Gofron and Strzelczak, 2011; Kasprzyk et al., 2011), determination of geographical origin of spores (Levetin, 1991; Hasnain et al., 2004) or investigation of the relationship between Ganoderma spores and allergy symptoms (Tarlo et al., 1979; Cutten et al., 1988; Lehrer and Horner, 1990). In spite of these, information about the effect of environmental conditions on spore release dynamics in basidiomycetes remains surprisingly limited. "
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    ABSTRACT: The genus Ganoderma commonly comprises wood decay fungal species that actively produce a large number of spores liberated from basidiocarps thereby contributing significantly to fungal air spora worldwide. Basidiospores of Ganoderma incite disease of tree species, and constitute aeroallergens hazardous to people. Earlier forecasting models to predict high concentrations of Ganoderma spores pointed out the dew point temperature, maximum and average wind speed and precipitation as significant meteorological parameters that affect the basidiospore release. The main aim of this work was to study relationships between basidiospore counts and meteorological conditions and to verify whether regression models based on data collected at aerobiological studies accurately predict the risk of exposure of people with spore-related allergies. Basidiospores were captured over three autumn months from 2006 to 2008 using two Hirst-type volumetric spore traps with identical sampling protocols and evaluation methods. Daily spore concentrations were sampled and the dynamics of changes in Ganoderma spore concentrations sampled at heights used in standard aerobiological studies, located several meters above the ground level (a.g.l.), were compared with those recorded at the same site, but at the human respiration zone, much closer to the ground. Relationships between basidiospore concentrations and weather variables were investigated with the Spearman's rank correlation analysis. To reveal differences in meteorological parameters and Ganoderma spore content between consecutive years and months studied, the non-parametric Mann–Whitney U, Kruskal–Wallis and Dunn's tests were applied. Furthermore artificial neural networks and multivariate regression trees were used, for which meteorological parameters were input variables, while Ganoderma basidiospore abundance was an output variable.
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    • "from various parts of the world have clearly implicated Ganoderma sp. spores as aeroallergens (Tarlo et al. 1979; Hasnain et al. 2004). In various reports, 10–48% human sensitisation in skin prick tests has been attributed to Ganoderma sp. "
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    International Journal of Biometeorology 03/2011; 55(2):235-41. DOI:10.1007/s00484-010-0329-x · 2.10 Impact Factor
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    • "Fig. 7. Comparison of Ganoderma spore concentrations observed in Rzeszów and those calculated from MLP 8:8-5-1:1 neural network. Wołek, 2005) but there are only few studies on the relationship between its spores concentration and meteorological parameters, (Craig and Levetin, 2000; Hasnain et al., 2004). In addition, all analysis was done using simple statistical analysis, (e.g. "
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