Airborne Ganoderma basidiospores in a country with desert environment
ABSTRACT Aerobiological studies to identify Ganoderma basidiospores were conducted using Burkard Volumetric 7-Day Recording Sampler (Burkard Manufacturing Co. Ltd., England) at three separate cities in Saudi Arabia. At one site, Jizan, close to the coast of Red Sea, up to 17% of all basidiospores counted were identified as Ganoderma spp. while less than 1% Ganoderma spp. were identified at the two non-coastal sites. A clear seasonal pattern from late autumn to early summer (October-March) with a peak in December was recorded at Jizan and the maximum concentration of Ganoderma basidiospores reached 1.9×103 m−3 in December followed by 1.2×103 m−3 in January. The diurnal pattern of Ganoderma spore concentrations, when averaged over the year had late-evening maxima (a nocturnal pattern). However, other sites that showed low concentrations of Ganoderma basidiospores did not exhibit any peak or a high maximal level. The study demonstrates that even in a desert environment, airborne activities of Ganoderma basidiospores can be recorded. The impact of Ganoderma on asthmatic patients, particularly in such environments, needs to be investigated.
SourceAvailable from: Agnieszka Grinn-Gofroń[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to determine functional relationships between composition of air spora and meteorological factors, using multivariate statistical technique: canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Analyses were conducted for the data collected during the 4 year (2007-2010) and, in order to show the dynamics of such relationships, for each year separately. The CCA results indicated that all statistically significant variables accounted for 15.3 % of the total variance in the spore data in the 4 years. The largest amount of the total variance was explained in this period by the mean air temperature (9.2 %). The meteorological factors impacted spore composition differently in different years, when analysis was done for each year separately. The highest values of the total variance in the spore data, explained by the statistically significant variables, were found in 2010 (32.3 %), with the highest contribution of mean air temperature (23.8 %). In that year, the above-mentioned parameter had the lowest value in comparison to other years. Canonical correspondence analysis provides not only a comprehensive assessment of the impact of meteorological factors on specific spore combinations in the air, but also informative graphical presentations of the results, illustrating the correlation between the occurrence of particular spore taxa and meteorological variables.Aerobiologia 03/2015; 31(1):63-72. DOI:10.1007/s10453-014-9347-1 · 1.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The genus Ganoderma commonly comprises wood decay fungal species that actively produce a large number of spores liberated from basidiocarps thereby contributing significantly to fungal air spora worldwide. Basidiospores of Ganoderma incite disease of tree species, and constitute aeroallergens hazardous to people. Earlier forecasting models to predict high concentrations of Ganoderma spores pointed out the dew point temperature, maximum and average wind speed and precipitation as significant meteorological parameters that affect the basidiospore release. The main aim of this work was to study relationships between basidiospore counts and meteorological conditions and to verify whether regression models based on data collected at aerobiological studies accurately predict the risk of exposure of people with spore-related allergies. Basidiospores were captured over three autumn months from 2006 to 2008 using two Hirst-type volumetric spore traps with identical sampling protocols and evaluation methods. Daily spore concentrations were sampled and the dynamics of changes in Ganoderma spore concentrations sampled at heights used in standard aerobiological studies, located several meters above the ground level (a.g.l.), were compared with those recorded at the same site, but at the human respiration zone, much closer to the ground. Relationships between basidiospore concentrations and weather variables were investigated with the Spearman's rank correlation analysis. To reveal differences in meteorological parameters and Ganoderma spore content between consecutive years and months studied, the non-parametric Mann–Whitney U, Kruskal–Wallis and Dunn's tests were applied. Furthermore artificial neural networks and multivariate regression trees were used, for which meteorological parameters were input variables, while Ganoderma basidiospore abundance was an output variable.Considerable differences were observed between Ganoderma spore concentrations at people's respiratory zone and 18 a.g.l., a height used in standard aerobiological studies. At 1 m a.g.l. the concentrations were 1.2 to 6 times higher than those at 18 m a.g.l. Moreover, the dynamics of changes throughout spore trapping seasons were different; at 18 m a.g.l. they fluctuations were similar across all years sampled, whereas at 1 m a.g.l. there were wide variations between years. The correlation between weather variables and concentrations of captured basidiospores at these levels was significant but rather low. The results questioned the usefulness of models based on spore samplings performed at several meters a.g.l. and suggested that the real numbers of basidiospores that are inhaled by people might depend on parameters that were as yet not included in the models.Graphical abstractKeywordsArtificial neural networkBasidiosporeGanodermaInhalant allergyMultivariate regression treeSurface layerAgricultural and Forest Meteorology 02/2015; 201. DOI:10.1016/j.agrformet.2014.11.015 · 3.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Grinn-Gofroń A, Strzelczak A, Przestrzelska K. Seasonal variation of Ganoderma spore concentrations in urban and suburban districts of the city of Szczecin, Poland. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2015; 22(1): 7–11. Abstract According to recent studies, Ganoderma may be the third genus, after Alternaria and Cladosporium, the spores of which cause symptoms of allergy, and concentration is related to meteorological factors. The aerobiology of Ganoderma spores in Szczecin in urban and suburban districts was examined using Lanzoni Volumetric Spore Traps in 2008–2010. Ganoderma spores were present in the atmosphere on more than 90% of the days from June through September with peak concentrations in June, July and September. The number of days with spores was lower in the suburban district, while the total number of spores collected was higher there than in the urban district. Correlation and multiple regression analyses revealed weak relationships between Ganoderma and meteorological conditions, while testing the significance of differences between the districts showed that urban development did not have a clear impact on the values of meteorological parameters. A significantly higher abundance of spores in the suburbs of Szczecin seemed to be conditioned by the closeness of potential area sources. This study indicates that a single measuring site in the city centre insufficiently reflected the dynamics and level of Ganoderma spore concentration in peripheral districts.Annals of agricultural and environmental medicine: AAEM 05/2015; 2015(22 1):7-11. DOI:10.5604/12321966.1141360 · 3.06 Impact Factor