Airborne Ganoderma basidiospores in a country with desert environment
ABSTRACT Aerobiological studies to identify Ganoderma basidiospores were conducted using Burkard Volumetric 7-Day Recording Sampler (Burkard Manufacturing Co. Ltd., England) at three separate cities in Saudi Arabia. At one site, Jizan, close to the coast of Red Sea, up to 17% of all basidiospores counted were identified as Ganoderma spp. while less than 1% Ganoderma spp. were identified at the two non-coastal sites. A clear seasonal pattern from late autumn to early summer (October-March) with a peak in December was recorded at Jizan and the maximum concentration of Ganoderma basidiospores reached 1.9×103 m−3 in December followed by 1.2×103 m−3 in January. The diurnal pattern of Ganoderma spore concentrations, when averaged over the year had late-evening maxima (a nocturnal pattern). However, other sites that showed low concentrations of Ganoderma basidiospores did not exhibit any peak or a high maximal level. The study demonstrates that even in a desert environment, airborne activities of Ganoderma basidiospores can be recorded. The impact of Ganoderma on asthmatic patients, particularly in such environments, needs to be investigated.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to determine functional relationships between composition of air spora and meteorological factors, using multivariate statistical technique: canonical correspondence ana- lysis (CCA). Analyses were conducted for the data collected during the 4 year (2007–2010) and, in order to show the dynamics of such relationships, for each year separately. The CCA results indicated that all statistically signiﬁcant variables accounted for 15.3 % of the total variance in the spore data in the 4 years. The largest amount of the total variance was explained in this period by the mean air temperature (9.2 %). The meteorological factors impacted spore composition differently in different years, when analysis was done for each year separately. The highest values of the total variance in the spore data, explained by the statisti- cally signiﬁcant variables, were found in 2010 (32.3 %), with the highest contribution of mean air temperature (23.8 %). In that year, the above-men- tioned parameter had the lowest value in comparison to other years. Canonical correspondence analysis provides not only a comprehensive assessment of the impact of meteorological factors on speciﬁc spore combinations in the air, but also informative graphical presentations of the results, illustrating the correlation between the occurrence of particular spore taxa and meteorological variables.Aerobiologia 09/2014; · 1.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We propose here the hypothesis that all of United Kingdom (UK) is likely to be affected by Ganoderma sp. spores, an important plant pathogen. We suggest that the main sources of this pathogen, which acts as a bioaerosol, are the widely scattered woodlands in the country, although remote sources must not be neglected. The hypothesis is based on related studies on bioaerosols and supported by new observations from a non-forest site and model calculations to support our hypothesis. Hourly concentrations of Ganoderma sp. spores were measured from 2006 to 2010 using a 7-day volumetric spore trap at the city of Worcester. The concentrations peak during the night and early in the morning. This suggests that the main spore sources are located a few hours away with respect to air masses transport and reach urban areas thanks to air masses transport. The back-trajectory analysis was applied to determine the location of Ganoderma sp. spore sources. The analysis of back-trajectories demonstrated that 78% of the air masses reached Worcester from a 180° arc direction from the East to West. Three episodes were selected for detailed investigation and they revealed that during the episodes air masses always passed main UK woodlands before the arrival in Worcester, independently of their origin, but the long distance transport under certain conditions might be possible. Our studies suggest that the sources of UK Ganoderma sp. spores are mainly to be found in UK. Hence our studies suggest that research and mitigation strategies in UK should give their main attention to national sources, without neglecting the contribution from long distance transport.Atmospheric Environment 02/2014; 84:88-99. · 3.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The present study sought to examine Coprinus and Ganoderma airborne spore counts, analysing seasonal variations, the influence of meteorological variables and intraday behaviour with a view to charting the aerobiological dynamics of both genera in Havana (Cuba) during a 2-year period (November 2010–October 2012). A Hirst-type volumetric air sampler was used as sampling methodology. The spores registered in the air were identified and counted following the model proposed by the Spanish Aerobiological Network based on two longitudinal transects along the slides. Coprinus spores outnumbered those of the Ganoderma (28,468 annual total spores vs. 1,921 spores). Moreover, both genera were recorded in the atmosphere on a large number of days over the two-year study period, with daily maximum concentrations in the rainy months. The daily maximum value for Coprinus was 880 spores/m3 (30 September 2011), whereas for Ganoderma 44 spores/m3 (4 September 2011). The analysis of the Spearman correlation coefficient showed a significant positive correlation of the airborne Coprinus and Ganoderma spores with the temperature, relative humidity and rainfall, whereas the degree of association is negative with the wind speed. Regarding the intraday behaviour, both basidiospores were more abundant in the atmosphere during the night, with a maximum peak at 5–6 a.m.Aerobiologia 06/2013; · 1.20 Impact Factor