Airborne Ganoderma basidiospores in a country with desert environment
ABSTRACT Aerobiological studies to identify Ganoderma basidiospores were conducted using Burkard Volumetric 7-Day Recording Sampler (Burkard Manufacturing Co. Ltd., England) at three separate cities in Saudi Arabia. At one site, Jizan, close to the coast of Red Sea, up to 17% of all basidiospores counted were identified as Ganoderma spp. while less than 1% Ganoderma spp. were identified at the two non-coastal sites. A clear seasonal pattern from late autumn to early summer (October-March) with a peak in December was recorded at Jizan and the maximum concentration of Ganoderma basidiospores reached 1.9×103 m−3 in December followed by 1.2×103 m−3 in January. The diurnal pattern of Ganoderma spore concentrations, when averaged over the year had late-evening maxima (a nocturnal pattern). However, other sites that showed low concentrations of Ganoderma basidiospores did not exhibit any peak or a high maximal level. The study demonstrates that even in a desert environment, airborne activities of Ganoderma basidiospores can be recorded. The impact of Ganoderma on asthmatic patients, particularly in such environments, needs to be investigated.
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ABSTRACT: Ganoderma spores are one of the most airspora abundant taxa in many regions of the world, and are considered to be important allergens. The aerobiology of Ganoderma basidiospores in two cities in Poland was examined using the volumetric method, (Burkard and Lanzonii Spore Traps), from selected days in 2004, 2005 and 2006. Spores of Ganoderma were present in the atmosphere from June to November, with peak concentrations generally occurring from late July to mid-October. ANN (artificial neural network) and MRT (multivariate regression trees), models indicated that atmospheric phenomenon, hour and relative humidity were the most important variables influencing spore content. The remaining variables (air temperature, dew point, air pressure, wind speed and wind direction), also contributed to the high network performance, (ratio above 1), but their impact was less distinct. Those results are consistent with the Spearman's rank correlation analysis.Science of The Total Environment 02/2011; 409(5):949-56. · 3.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Airborne Pollen grains and Spores of three different cities viz., Al-Khobar (1987–1988), Abha (1991–1992) and Hofuf (1992–1993) in Saudi Arabia were studied using Burkard Volumetric Seven-Day Spore Trap. The data were analyzed in relation to their allergenic capability and one-year pollen and spore calendars were designed to correlate the patients’ symptoms as well as for selection of appropriate allergen extracts for diagnosis and treatment of allergic diseases. Amongst pollen group, Amaranthus viridis, Plantago spp., Chenopodium album, Ricinus communis, Rumex vesicarius, Juniperus spp., Parkinsonia aculeata, Prosopis spp., and Phoenix dactylifera were some of the frequent types. Amongst the fungal spores group Cladosporium, Smuts spores, Colored basidiospores, Alternaria, Ulocladium and Drechslera were the dominant types.Aerobiologia 04/2005; 21(3):241-247. · 1.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Seasonal and diurnal variations of airborne basidiomycetous spores concentrations (basidiospores, smuts and rust spores) were studied using Burkard Volumetric Spore Traps in three major coastal cities viz., Dammam, Jeddah and Jizan in Saudi Arabia. The distance between the sites was approximately 1600km from East to West. In addition to numerous airborne deuteromycetous spores identified at all sites, a considerable concentration of basidiomycetous spores were also recorded. The data revealed that basidiospores constituted a maximum of 17% of the total air spora in Jizan, while the maximum for Dammam and Jeddah was 11% each. Spores from smuts constituted the highest percentages of all basidiosmycetous spores ranging between 9–33% and 12–33% respectively in Dammam and Jizan. In Jeddah, it constituted between 14–26%. In contrast, rusts were less frequent at all sites. Maximum concentration of basidiospores showed that at certain months the level reached between 1000–6000 m−3. The data did not exhibit any seasonal pattern in their maximum appearance. Maximum concentration of smuts were much higher compared to basidiospores and the level fluctuated between 500–4000 m−3. Rusts were low in concentration (−3). The diurnal pattern of basidiospores concentration for at least one site (Jizan) averaged over the year showed a nocturnal trend consistent with basidiospores active discharge. The other two sites had no such trend. Diel periodicities of smuts and rusts spores did not exhibit any clear pattern. The study suggests that even in coastal regions having the same climatic conditions with a slightly different geography, show variation in basidiospores concentrations.Aerobiologia 05/2005; 21(2):139-145. · 1.33 Impact Factor