Police use of deadly force: Research and reform
ABSTRACT Police use of deadly force first became a major public issue in the 1960s, when many urban riots were precipitated immediately by police killings of citizens. Since that time scholars have studied deadly force extensively, police practitioners have made significant reforms in their policies and practices regarding deadly force, and the United States Supreme Court has voided a centuries-old legal principle that authorized police in about one-half the states to use deadly force to apprehend unarmed, nonviolent, fleeing felony suspects. This essay reviews and interprets these developments.
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ABSTRACT: Basic data on the involvement of minorities in Los Angeles Police Department shooting incidents from 1974 to 1979 are presented. Shootings involving black suspects differed in number, in circumstances, and under some circum stances, in outcomes of the shooting review process from shootings involving Hispanics and whites. Few differences appeared between shooting incidents involving Hispanics and shootings involving white suspects.The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 01/1980; 452(1):98-110. · 1.01 Impact Factor
Article: The Management of Police Killings[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: lmost four yeArs Ago in the first issue of Crime and Social Justice, tAkAgi� (�974)�presentedananalysisofpolicekillingsofciviliansandofpolice� officers killed in the line of duty in the United States. He examined the deaths of male civilians over 10 years old caused by police intervention during a 10-year period and noted the dramatic increase of civilian deaths (especially blacks) caused by the police between 1962 and 1969, a period of intense political struggle and popular militancy. The death rate for blacks was found to be consistently nine times higher than for whites for the entire period of 1950-1968. At the time of Takagi's study, police killings of civilians had received virtually no attention, except in the studies of Robin (1963) and Knoohuizen et al., 1972). Since 1974, a number of additional studies have appeared on this subject, in- cluding an important policy statement by the Ford Foundation's Police Foundation (Milton et al., 1977; hereafter referred as Police Foundation report). In this article, we (1) present additional data to update the earlier Takagi study, (2) critically ana- lyze new studies of police killings, and (3) examine the ideological and strategic premises underlying state efforts to manage police killings of civilians. Police Killings Table 1 shows that white males continue to be killed by the police at a rate of 0.2 per 100,000 males ages nine or over. There was a slight increase in the deaths of white males in the 1965-1968 period, but this leveled off to the previous rate in the next four years.01/1977;