[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aims of the present study were to compare the gastric emptying of dry matter (DM) and liquids during the feeding period with that following meal consumption, to clarify the relationship between feeding and gastric emptying, and to investigate how gastric emptying changes in growing animals. The studies were performed in pigs fitted with a gastric cannula and fed on a normal finely ground solid diet mixed with water containing CrEDTA as liquid marker. Gastric emptying was measured using a gastric evacuation technique. It was observed that between 0.75 and 6 h after feeding the total amounts emptied increased, but the proportion of the meal emptied fell, with increase in meal size; emptying of both DM and liquids with large and small meals followed an exponential pattern. In contrast, while the animals were feeding, there was linear and rapid emptying of both DM and liquids following a very short (approximately 2 min) lag phase before emptying began. The rate of emptying increased linearly with body-weight (by 0.055 g DM/min and by 0.24 ml/min per kg body-weight over the range 58-200 kg) such that the emptying of digestible energy per kg metabolic body-weight (W0.75) was roughly maintained (between 2.9 and 3.2 kJ/min per kg W0.75). This suggests that the rate of emptying may be linked in some way with the metabolic requirements of the body. The biphasic pattern of gastric emptying observed is probably the intrinsic pattern of emptying of a meal which does not require breakdown of particles before emptying can occur.
British Journal Of Nutrition 08/1990; 64(1):45-58. · 3.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. Concentrations of amino-nitrogen, glucose, reducing sugars and lactic acid in blood obtained from arterial and portal permanent catheters were measured together with the portal hepatic blood flow-rate during a post-prandial period of 8 h in twenty unanaesthetized pigs (initial mean body-weight 52·3 (SEM 0·9) kg) receiving experimental meals (200–1000 g) at 3–4 d intervals from 6–8 to 20 d after surgical implantation of the catheters and electromagnetic flow probe. The semi-synthetic starch-based diets contained variable amounts of fish meal giving crude protein (nitrogen x 6·25; CP) concentrations (g CP/kg) of 80 (seven meals), 120 (twenty-two meals), 160 (six meals) and 240 (nine meals).2. After the meal the concentration of amino-N increased with increasing levels of protein intake and increased more in the portal than in the arterial blood. There were significant relations between amounts of amino-N appearing in the portal blood at various time-intervals after the meal and the level of protein intake. Values for the ratio, amount absorbed within 8 h: amount ingested (absorption coefficient: 0·633 for a mean intake of 13·4 g N) decreased with increasing level of protein intake.3. There was a rise in glycaemia after the meal, increasing with the amount of carbohydrate eaten, and this was more marked in the portal than in the arterial blood. There were also significant relations between amounts of glucose absorbed and amounts of starch ingested. However, the appearance of glucose in the portal blood was less marked than that of amino-N since the absorption coefficient within 8 h was lower (0·504 for a mean intake of 291 g reducing sugars). This was most probably due to a larger uptake of glucose by the intestinal cell wall.4. Amounts of lactic acid appearing in the portal vein during the post-prandial period did not depend on amounts ingested; they ranged from 3 to 1·6 g/h from the 1st to the 8th hour after the meal.
The British journal of nutrition 01/1988; 60(01). · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A technique for measuring gastric emptying in growing pigs by complete removal of digesta through a gastric cannula is described. Four pigs were fitted with gastric cannulas and each was used in three trials. The effects of level of feeding (trial 1), cellulose (C), maize-oil (MO) or sucrose (SU) supplementation (trial 2) and the level of water intake (trial 3) on gastric emptying of digesta, dry matter (DM) and nitrogen from a barley-weatings-soya-bean (B) diet were measured during 4 h after the morning feed. In trial 1, pigs were given 0.66, 0.83, 1.00 or 1.17 times their standard level of feeding. As the level of feeding rose, so the weight of digesta, DM and N emptied in the first hour after feeding increased. This trend continued to some extent in the second hour, but no effects of level of feeding were seen in the third and fourth hours. In trial 2, maize-oil addition to the diet significantly reduced the gastric-emptying rate of DM in the second hour after feeding, compared with the rates for diet C. The rate of N emptying was significantly slower for diets MO and SU than for diet C. In trial 3 there were no significant effects of water intake level (1.75, 2.50 and 3.25 times the weight of diet) on the rate of DM or N emptying from the stomach. The rate of digesta (and thus of water) emptying in the first hour after feeding increased significantly as the water intake rose. It was concluded that because the pattern of gastric emptying was very similar despite large differences in nutritional inputs, an important property of the process appeared to be resilience.
British Journal Of Nutrition 10/1985; 54(2):437-47. · 3.30 Impact Factor
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