Serial influenza-vaccination reveals impaired maintenance of specific T-cell memory in patients with end-stage renal failure
ABSTRACT To investigate correlates for the well-known impaired response of haemodialysis-patients to a variety of recommended vaccinations, the induction of antigen-specific cellular and humoral immunity was characterised after influenza-vaccination in two following seasons where the identical vaccine-composition was used. Influenza-specific T-cells were flow-cytometrically characterised from whole blood of 24 healthy controls and 26 haemodialysis-patients by proliferation-assays, induction of IFN-γ and TNF-α, and maturation markers. Antibody-titres were quantified using ELISA and hemagglutination-inhibition test. Influenza-specific CD4 T-cells were recently activated CD45RO+/CD27+ Th1-cells. Specific T-cell frequencies significantly increased 1-2 weeks after the first vaccination in both controls (mean increase by 0.50±0.64%, max: 3.01%) and haemodialysis-patients (by 0.55±0.71%, max: 3.44%). Thereafter, T-cell levels continuously decreased to pre-vaccination levels within approximately 7 weeks, whereas antibody-titres were more stable over time. By 6 months, haemodialysis-patients had significantly lower precursor-frequencies of proliferating influenza-specific memory T-cells (p=0.006). In the following season, memory-maintainance in immunocompetent individuals led to a significantly less pronounced increase in cellular immunity after re-vaccination (by only 0.12±0.09%, p=0.003), whereas the vaccine induced a strong increase in a second group of vaccination-naïve controls. Of note, haemodialysis-patients responded like vaccination-naïve individuals, as they showed a strong increase in cellular immunity after re-vaccination that was as pronounced as in the year before. In conclusion, the less pronounced T-cell increase after re-vaccination in controls may indicate maintainance of sufficient immunological memory. In contrast, the more rapid loss of proliferating cells in haemodialysis-patients may represent a sign of relative immunodeficiency and contribute to an increased incidence of recurrent infectious complications.
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ABSTRACT: Immunologic complications of chronic renal failure are associated with the overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines by monocytes. This is partly due to renal failure itself but is further enhanced by hemodialysis treatment with frequent contact between blood and dialyzer membranes. Previous studies have shown an imbalance of proinflammatory and regulatory monokines in these patients. This study examines monokine production in hemodialysis patients using for the first time a very sensitive method of cytokine detection at a single-cell level by flow cytometry ("cytoflow technique"). Monocytes were stained intracellularly for the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10 after 20 h of culture with lipopolysaccharide. It was shown that high levels of proinflammatory IL-6 in hemodialysis patients are due to an increased number of monocytes producing this cytokine, while IL-6 synthesis per cell remains unchanged. In contrast, elevated levels of regulatory IL-10 are due to an increased synthesis per cell. This study demonstrates that in healthy subjects there is a population of monocytes producing exclusively IL-10 after 20 h of stimulation by lipopolysaccharide. This distinct population of regulatory monocytes is infrequent in dialysis patients, in whom most of the IL-10-positive monocytes also produce IL-6. These findings indicate that overproduction of proinflammatory factors in dialysis patients is at least in part due to a loss of cytokine-specific differentiation in monocytes.Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 10/1998; 9(9):1689-96. · 9.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Specific cellular immune reactions in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) are impaired by a defect of the antigen-presenting cells. To elucidate the molecular background for this defect, we determined the expression of human lymphocyte antigen (HLA)-DR and costimulatory molecules on monocytes of hemodialysis patients. The expression of HLA-DR, B7-1 (CD80), and B7-2 (CD86) molecules was determined on CD14+ monocytes of chronic hemodialysis patients prior to a dialysis session. Mononuclear cells of these patients were cultured, and expression of the respective antigens was determined after in vitro activation by various stimuli. Results were correlated with in vitro proliferation of T cells in a phytohemagglutinin (PHA) assay and the clinical response to a hepatitis B vaccination. All data were compared with healthy controls and patients with CRF who were not on dialysis. Monocytes of chronic hemodialysis patients but not CRF patients expressed low levels of costimulatory B7-2, while HLA-DR expression was normal. B7-1 was only expressed on activated monocytes, and the expression reached normal levels in hemodialysis patients. Baseline expression of B7-2 highly correlated with the results of T-cell proliferation assays in hemodialysis patients and also with the clinical immune response. Impaired expression and up-regulation of B7-2 is an important feature of the cellular immune defect in chronic hemodialysis patients. It leads to reduced costimulation and effector activation of T cells and contributes to a molecular explanation for the impaired response of hemodialysis patients to the hepatitis B vaccination.Kidney International 05/2001; 59(4):1382-9. DOI:10.1046/j.1523-1755.2001.0590041382.x · 8.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Identification of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in hemodialysis patients is hampered by reduced sensitivity of the established tuberculin skin test. We investigated whether in vitro quantitation of purified protein derivative (PPD)-specific T cells using a rapid 6-hour assay may represent an alternative approach for detecting latent infection. One hundred and twenty-seven hemodialysis patients and 218 control patients (blood donors, health care workers, and control patients) were analyzed. Specific T cells toward PPD and early secretory antigenic target-6 (ESAT-6), a protein expressed in Mycobacterium tuberculosis but absent from M. bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine strains, were flow cytometrically quantified from whole blood, and results were compared with skin testing. Compared to blood donors, a high proportion of both health care workers (48.6%) and hemodialysis patients (53.5%) had PPD-specific Th1-type CD4 T-cell reactivity with similar median frequencies of PPD-specific T cells (0.17%; 0.06-3.75% vs. 0.26%; 0.06-4.12%, respectively). In contrast, skin test reactivity was significantly reduced in hemodialysis patients. Whereas 85.7% of control patients with PPD reactivity in vitro were skin test-positive, the respective percentage among hemodialysis patients was 51.4% (P= 0.007). Among individuals with PPD reactivity in vitro, approximately 50% had T cells specific for ESAT-6. Unlike the skin test, measurement of PPD reactivity by in vitro quantitation of PPD-specific T cells was unaffected by uremia-associated immunosuppression. This whole-blood assay may thus be a valuable alternative to skin testing, and detection of ESAT-6-specific T cells could moreover allow distinction of latent M. tuberculosis infection from BCG-induced reactivity to PPD. The assay is well suited for clinical use and may facilitate targeting of preventative therapy in high-risk individuals.Kidney International 06/2004; 65(5):1826-34. DOI:10.1111/j.1523-1755.2004.00586.x · 8.52 Impact Factor