Article

Pagtatanong-tanong: A cross-cultural research method

International Journal of Intercultural Relations (Impact Factor: 1.14). 01/1989; 13(2):147-163. DOI: 10.1016/0147-1767(89)90003-5

ABSTRACT Pagtatanong-tanong, a Filipino word which means “asking questions, ” has been identified as an indigenous research method in Philippine social science research. This paper discusses its usefulness in cross-cultural studies particularly those among ethnic minority groups. Pagtatanong-tanong has four major characteristics: (a) It is participatory in nature; the informant has an input in the structure of the interaction in terms of defining its direction and in time management, (b) The researcher and the informant are equal in status; both parties may ask each other questions for about the same length of time. (c) It is appropriate and adaptive to the conditions of the group of informants in that it conforms to existing group norms, (d) It is integrated with other indigenous research methods.Different aspects of pagtatanong-tanong are discussed: preparation, procedure, levels of interaction, language, insider-outsider issue, cultural sensitivity, reliability/validity and ethical issues. Emphasis is given to the basic guiding principle: that the level of interaction between the researcher and the informant influences the quality of data obtained. Eight levels of interaction which are divided into the “One-of-Us” and the “Outsider” categories are described.RésuméOet article explique une méthode indigène de faire des recherches socio-scientifiques aux Philippines. Le sujet est l' utilité de “Pagtatanong-tanong” pour etudier les groupes ethniques minorités par une perspective socio-culturelle et comparative. “Pagtatanong-tanong”, qui veut dire “établir la communication par des questions mutuelles, ” a quatre caractéristiques distinctives: (1) sa nature est favorable à la participation; c' est-à-dire, l' informateur peut aider à définir la structure de l' entrevue en aidant à décidir sa direction et la disposition du temps; (2) la personne qui fait les recherches et 1' informateur sont au même niveau social en posant les questions; ils sont plus ou moins la même chance à poser ses questions; (3) la méthode de faire les recherches reste en accord avec les régles sociales des informateurs; (4) la méthode est integrée avec des autres techniques de la recherche indigène.On discute des aspects de “pagtatanong-tanong” : la préparation: le procès; les niveaux d' interaction; le langage correct; les problemes d' être étranger ou autochtone; la sensitivité culturelle; l' exactitude et la veracité et les éthiques, Partout, on suite la proposition principale: la qualité des donnees est influencée par la qualité de 1' intéraction entre l' informateur et la personne qui fait les recherches. On traite huit niveaux d' interaction, “d'étranger” jusqu'à “un de chez nous, pour nous”. (Author-supplied abstract).ResumenEste articulo trata de,un método indígena de hacer investigaciones socio-científicas en Filipinas. Se refiere principalmente a la utilidad de “pagtatanong-tanong” en los estudios de los grupos étnicos por una perspectiva comparativa y sociocultural. “Pagtatanong-tanong”, que quiere decir “establecer communicación mediante preguntas mutuales”, tiene cuatro caracteristicas principales: (1) estimula la participación activa del informante; es decir el informante puede asistir a estructuar la entrevista definiendo su dirección y su consuno del tiempo; (2) el investigador y el informante están al mismo nivel en la posición social; tienen más o menos la misma oportunidad de preguntar; (3) el método de hacer investigaciones conforme a las normas del grupo de informantes; (4) el método se integra con otras técnicas de investigación indigena.Se presentan varios aspectos de “pagtatanong-tanong: la preparación, el prooeso, los niveles de interacción, el idioma que se usa; los problemas de ser investigador extranjero o auctóctono; la sensitividad cultural; la validez y la veracidad; y los problamas éticos. El énfasis está en el principio básico: que la calidad de la interacción entre el investigador y el informante influye la calidad de datos que se puedan obtener. Ocho niveles de interacción son examinados: de “extrarrjero” hasta “uno de nosotros”. (Author-supplied abstract).

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