Acute Normovolemic Hemodilution in the Pig Is Associated with Renal Tissue Edema, Impaired Renal Microvascular Oxygenation, and Functional Loss.
ABSTRACT The authors investigated the impact of acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) on intrarenal oxygenation and its functional short-term consequences in pigs.
Renal microvascular oxygenation (µPO2) was measured in cortex, outer and inner medulla via three implanted optical fibers by oxygen-dependent quenching of phosphorescence. Besides systemic hemodynamics, renal function, histopathology, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression were determined. ANH was performed in n = 18 pigs with either colloids (hydroxyethyl starch 6% 130/0.4) or crystalloids (full electrolyte solution), in three steps from a hematocrit of 30% at baseline to a hematocrit of 15% (H3).
ANH with crystalloids decreased µPO2 in cortex and outer medulla approximately by 65% (P < 0.05) and in inner medulla by 30% (P < 0.05) from baseline to H3. In contrast, µPO2 remained unaltered during ANH with colloids. Furthermore, renal function decreased by approximately 45% from baseline to H3 (P < 0.05) only in the crystalloid group. Three times more volume of crystalloids was administered compared with the colloid group. Alterations in systemic and renal regional hemodynamics, oxygen delivery and oxygen consumption during ANH, gave no obvious explanation for the deterioration of µPO2 in the crystalloid group. However, ANH with crystalloids was associated with the highest formation of renal tissue edema and the highest expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, which was mainly localized in distal convoluted tubules.
ANH to a hematocrit of 15% statistically significantly impaired µPO2 and renal function in the crystalloid group. Less tissue edema formation and an unimpaired renal µPO2 in the colloid group might account for a preserved renal function.
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ABSTRACT: Closed minimal extracorporeal circulation (MECC) systems currently do not represent the standard of surgical care for open-heart surgery. Yet, considering the beneficial results reported for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, we used an MECC system in aortic valve replacement (AVR) and analysed the effects on intraoperative microvascular perfusion in comparison with conventional open extracorporeal circulation (CECC). In the current study, we analysed alterations in microvascular perfusion at 4 predefined time points (T1-T4) during surgical AVR utilizing orthogonal polarization spectral (OPS) imaging. Twenty patients were randomized for being operated on utilizing either MECC or CECC. Changes in functional capillary density (FCD, cm/cm(2)), mircovascular blood flow velocity (mm/s) and vessel diameter (μm) were analysed by a blinded investigator. After the start of extracorporeal circulation and aortic cross-clamping (T2), both groups showed a significant drop in FCD, but with a significantly higher FCD in the MECC group (153.1 ± 15.0 cm/cm² in the CECC group vs 160.8 ± 12.2 cm/cm² in the MECC group, P = 0.034). During the late phase of the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) (T3), the FCD was still significantly depressed in both treatment groups (153.5 ± 14.6 cm/cm² in the CECC group, P <0.05 vs 'T1'; 159.5 ± 12.4 cm/cm² in the MECC group, P <0.05 versus 'T1'). After termination of CPB (T4), the FCD recovered in both groups to baseline values. Microvascular blood flow velocity tended to remain at a higher level in the MECC group, whereas haemodilution during CPB was significantly reduced in the MECC group. The use of MECC in AVR did not affect procedural safety and, resulted in beneficial preservation of microvascular blood flow velocity and significantly reduced haemodilution during CPB. In contrast to CABG surgery, the use of MECC did not improve FCD during surgical AVR. Clinical advantages possibly resulting from attenuated haemodilution and preservation of microvascular blood flow velocity require further validation in larger patient cohorts.Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery 05/2014; 19(2). DOI:10.1093/icvts/ivu131 · 1.11 Impact Factor
Anesthesiology 05/2013; DOI:10.1097/ALN.0b013e31829bdb4b · 6.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The ultimate purpose of fluid administration in states of hypovolemia is to correct cardiac output to improve microcirculatory perfusion and tissue oxygenation. Observation of the microcirculation using handheld microscopes gives insight into the nature of convective and diffusive defect in hypovolemia. The purpose of this article is to introduce a new platform for hemodynamic-targeted fluid therapy based on the correction of tissue and microcirculatory perfusion assumed to be at risk during hypovolemia. Targeting systemic hemodynamic targets and/or clinical surrogates of hypovolemia gives inadequate guarantee for the correction of tissue perfusion by fluid therapy especially in conditions of distributive shock as occur in inflammation and sepsis. Findings are presented, which support the idea that only clinical signs of hypovolemia associated with low microcirculatory flow can be expected to benefit from fluid therapy and that fluid overload causes a defect in the diffusion of oxygen transport. We hypothesized that the optimal amount of fluid needed for correction of hypovolemia is defined by a physiologically based functional microcirculatory hemodynamic platform where convection and diffusion need to be optimized. Future clinical trials using handheld microscopes able to automatically evaluate the microcirculation at the bedside will show whether such a platform will indeed optimize fluid therapy.Current opinion in critical care 04/2014; DOI:10.1097/MCC.0000000000000091 · 3.18 Impact Factor