Article

New developments in the diagnostic procedures for zoonotic brucellosis in humans.

Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, Diedersdorfer Weg 1, D-12277 Berlin, Germany.
Revue scientifique et technique (International Office of Epizootics) (Impact Factor: 0.69). 04/2013; 32(1):177-88.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT At present, laboratory diagnosis of human brucellosis is based on isolation of the bacteria from clinical samples followed by standard microbiological tube testing, detection of anti-Brucella antibodies using various serological tests, and the use of molecular methods for the detection of Brucella DNA. None of these diagnostic tools can be used on its own to reliably detect the causative agent. Cultures give a low yield and subsequent phenotypic characterisation is time consuming, meaning that the initiation of adequate antibiotic therapy is frequently delayed. Serological tests seem to be more effective but are not internationally standardised. Moreover, antibodies can remain detectable despite successful therapy, cross-reacting antibodies may occur, and variable cut-offs for different levels of endemicity are lacking. Molecular assays may reduce diagnostic delays in clinical laboratories, but diagnostic criteria for active infection have not yet been defined. This article reviews the latest microbiological methods for the diagnosis of human brucellosis and outlines developments for the future.

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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of public health importance having an impact on animal husbandry and dairy industry. Isolation of bacteria from blood cultures is very low, and diagnosis mainly depends on serology and molecular methods. The aim of this study is to know the impact of various serological tests on the diagnosis of brucellosis. Materials and Methods: In a prospective study, a total of 180 samples, 90 from pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) and 90 from high-risk group comprising veterinarians and animal handlers were serologically tested by Rose Bengal plate test, standard tube agglutination (STA) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and results were analyzed. Results: Out of 90 PUO cases, 28 were positive for brucellosis and in high-risk group, out of 30 veterinarians three were positive and out of 60 animal handlers 14 were positive. Male preponderance was seen. Rose Bengal and STA tests were still effi cient methods for brucellosis serodiagnosis. The ELISA was observed to be more effi cient in both acute and chronic brucellosis. Conclusion: All the three methods used are effi cient methods for detecting Brucella antibody. Rose Bengal card test is the best suited for rapid diagnosis in rural endemic area as STA test is laborious and time-consuming. ELISA is the most sensitive test. Keywords: Brucellosis, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Rose Bengal card test, serology, standard tube agglutination test