[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Armed conflict in Colombia has resulted in the displacement of an estimated 4.5 million people, or about 10% of the Colombian population. Hundreds of thousands of Colombians are exposed to violence and forced displacement annually. The present study used survey methods to assess levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety symptoms in a convenience sample of 109 internally displaced adults residing in Medellín, Colombia. A qualitative approach including an open-ended survey and focus groups with a subsample of 44 survey respondents was used to gain a better understanding of mental health treatment needs. A large proportion of survey respondents exceeded cut-scores for clinically significant PTSD (88%), anxiety (59%), and depression (41%). Multivariate regression models showed that female gender was a significant predictor of higher PTSD symptom levels and that female gender, higher education, and being separated as opposed to married predicted higher levels of depression symptoms. Focus group findings suggest that participants are interested in specialized psychological treatments as well as broader psychosocial interventions to treat the consequences of exposure to violence and forced displacement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Psychological Trauma Theory Research Practice and Policy 11/2011; 3(4):384-393. · 0.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
In Colombia, the internal armed conflict is a public health problem that generates various forms of violence (forced disappearances, forced displacement, massacres, torture and sexual violence). Violence is a major psychosocial stressor that impairs the mental health of the Colombian population. However, there are no real estimates on the prevalence of mental symptoms, possible cases and disorders in victims of violence in displacement situations.
To determine the prevalence of mental symptoms, possible cases and disorders due to the forced displacement of victims of the armed conflict in Colombia during the past two decades (1994-2013).
A systematic review was carried out on all available studies published over the last twenty years. The keywords used were “armed conflict”, “mental disorders”, “mental health”, “prevalence” and “Colombia”. Authors observed the frequency of symptoms, possible cases, and mental disorders.
Thirteen studies involving adults were included. The prevalence of symptoms was observed as between 9.9% and 63%; possible cases, between 21% and 97.3%; and mental disorders, between 1.5% and 32.9%.
The prevalence of symptoms, possible cases and mental disorders is high in this Colombian population. This finding should be interpreted with caution due to the high heterogeneity and low quality of the studies. More research is needed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Social determinants of health describe the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age and their influence on health. These circumstances are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels, which are themselves influenced by policy choices. Armed conflict and forced displacement are important influences on the social determinants of health. There is limited evidence on the social determinants of health of internally displaced persons (IDPs) who have been forced from their homes due to armed conflict but remain within the borders of their country. The aim of this study was to explore the social determinants of overall physical and mental health of IDPs, including the response strategies used by IDPs to support their health needs. Northern Uganda was chosen as a case-study, and 21 face-to-face semi-structured interviews with IDPs were conducted in fifteen IDP camps between November and December 2006.The findings indicated a number of key social determinants. Experiencing traumatic events could cause "over thinking" which in turn could lead to "madness" and physical ailments. Respondents also attributed "over thinking" to the spirit (cen) of a killed person returning to disturb its killer. Other social determinants included overcrowding which affected physical health and contributed to an emotional sense of loss of freedom; and poverty and loss of land which affected physical health from lack of food and income, and mental health because of worry and uncertainty. Respondents also commented on how the conflict and displacement and led to changes in social and cultural norms such as increased "adultery", "defilement", and "thieving". Response strategies included a combination of biopsychosocial health services, traditional practices, religion, family and friends, and isolating.This study supports work exploring the political, environmental, economic, and socio-cultural determinants of health of IDPs. Addressing these determinants is essential to fundamentally improving the overall physical and mental health of IDPs.
Conflict and Health 12/2009; 3:10.
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