Root Growth of Arabidopsis thaliana Is Regulated by Ethylene and Abscisic Acid Signaling Interaction in Response to HrpN Ea , a Bacterial Protein of Harpin Group
ABSTRACT HrpNEa is a harpin protein from Erwinia amylovora, a bacterial pathogen that causes fire blight in rosaceous plants. Treating plants with HrpNEa stimulates ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA) to induce plant growth and drought tolerance, respectively. Herein, we report
that both growth hormones cooperate to mediate the role of HrpNEa in promoting root growth of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Root growth is promoted coordinately with elevation in levels of ABA and ethylene subsequent to soaking of germinating
seeds of wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis in a solution of HrpNEa. However, these responses are arrested by inhibiting WT roots from synthesizing ethylene as well as sensing of ABA and ethylene.
The effects of HrpNEa on roots are also nullified in ethylene-insensitive etr1-1 and ein5-1 mutants and in the ABA-insensitive mutant abi2-1 of Arabidopsis. These results provide evidence for presence of a relationship between root growth enhancement and signaling by ABA and ethylene
in response to HrpNEa. Nevertheless, when HrpNEa is applied to leaves, ethylene signaling is active in the absence of ABA signaling to promote plant growth. This suggests
the presence of a different signaling mechanism in leaves from that in roots.
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ABSTRACT: Phytohormones regulate plant development via a poorly understood signal response network. Here, we show that the phytohormone ethylene regulates plant development at least in part via alteration of the properties of DELLA protein nuclear growth repressors, a family of proteins first identified as gibberellin (GA) signaling components. This conclusion is based on the following experimental observations. First, ethylene inhibited Arabidopsis root growth in a DELLA-dependent manner. Second, ethylene delayed the GA-induced disappearance of the DELLA protein repressor of ga1-3 from root cell nuclei via a constitutive triple response-dependent signaling pathway. Third, the ethylene-promoted "apical hook" structure of etiolated seedling hypocotyls was dependent on the relief of DELLA-mediated growth restraint. Ethylene, auxin, and GA responses now can be attributed to effects on DELLA function, suggesting that DELLA plays a key integrative role in the phytohormone signal response network.The Plant Cell 01/2004; 15(12):2816-25. · 9.25 Impact Factor
Article: Ethylene signaling pathway.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The structural simplicity of the plant hormone ethylene contrasts with its dramatic effects in various developmental processes, as well as in the cellular processes that ethylene initiates in response to a diversity of environmental signals. A single well-conserved signaling cascade mediates this broad spectrum of responses. Ethylene is perceived by a family of two-component histidine kinase receptors that become inactivated upon ethylene binding. In the absence of the hormone, the receptors activate CTR1, a negative regulator of ethylene responses. Sequence similarity between CTR1 and the Raf protein kinases implies involvement of a mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in this signaling pathway. The protein EIN2 acts downstream of CTR1 and the possible kinase cascade. Although the biochemical function of EIN2 is not understood, its critical role is manifested by the complete ethylene insensitivity of EIN2 loss-of-function mutants. Downstream of EIN2, a family of plant-specific EIN3-like transcription factors mediate ethylene responses. The regulation of EIN3 stability by ethylene is accomplished by F-box-containing proteins that participate in the formation of a SKP1/cullin/F-box complex that targets proteins for degradation by the proteasome. A large number of ethylene-regulated genes have been identified, including the APETALA2 domain-containing transcription factor genes ERF1 and EDF1 to 4, which suggests the participation of a transcriptional cascade in the ethylene response. The differential regulation of some components of this complex nuclear cascade by other signaling pathways provides a possible mechanism for interaction and signal integration. As new points of intersection with other pathways and additional participants in the pathway are identified, the Connections Map will be updated to include this new information.Science s STKE 04/2005; 2005(276):cm3.
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ABSTRACT: Expression of HpaGxoo, a bacterial type-III effector protein, in transgenic plants induces disease resistance. Resistance also can be elicited by biocontrol bacteria. We studied effects of the biocontrolBacillus subtilis strain B-916 on the rice variety R109 and the thehpaG xoo -expressing rice line HER1. Colonisation of roots by B-916 caused 12.5±1.3% and 0.5±0.05% increases, in contrast to controls, in root growth of R109 and HER1. Growth of R109 leaves and stems was increased by 0.5±0.05% but that of HER1 was inhibited. When B-916 colonisation was subsequent to plant inoculation withRhizoctonia solani, a pathogen that causes sheath blight, the disease was less severe than controls in both R109 and HER1; HER1, nevertheless, was more resistant, suggesting that B-916 and HpaGxoo cooperate in inducing disease resistance. In R109 roots, theOsARF1 gene, which regulates plant growth, was expressed in consistence with growth promotion by B-916. Inversely, the depression ofOsARF1 expression was coincident with inhibition in growth of HER1 leaves and stems. In both plants, the expression ofOsEXP1, which encodes an expansin protein involved in plant growth, was concomitant with growth promotion in leaves and roots responding to B-916. We also studiedOsMAPK5b encoding a mitogen-activated protein kinase involved in multiple defence responses in rice. In response to B-916, early expression ofOsMAPK5b was coincident with R109 resistance to the disease, while HER1 expressed the gene similarly whether B-916 was present or not. Evidently, B916 and HER1 interact differently in rice growth and resistance. The combinative efffects should stimulate agricultural use and furthestudies on mechanisms that underlie the interaction.Annals of Microbiology 04/2012; 56(4):281-287. · 1.55 Impact Factor