Antagonistic Effects of Anti-EMMPRIN Antibody When Combined with Chemotherapy Against Hypovascular Pancreatic Cancers

Department of Radiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, 35294-0019, USA, .
Molecular imaging and biology: MIB: the official publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging (Impact Factor: 2.77). 07/2013; 16(1). DOI: 10.1007/s11307-013-0665-4
Source: PubMed


To examine the antagonistic effects of anti-extracellular matrix metalloprotease inducer (anti-EMMPRIN) antibody when combined with chemotherapy using a hypovascular pancreatic tumor model.
Severely compromised immunodeficient mice bearing orthotopic MIA PaCa-2 tumors were used (five to six animals per group). Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine the relationship between tumor vascularity and size. Therapy was initiated when tumors were hypovascular. Treatments included: (1) gemcitabine alone, (2) anti-EMMPRIN antibody alone, and (3) combination, each for 2 weeks. Additionally, another treatment arm included β-lapachone, an NAD(P)H/quinone 1 (NQO1) bioactivated agent. (18)F-fluoro-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging was used weekly to monitor therapeutic effects.
Gemcitabine or anti-EMMPRIN monotherapy significantly delayed tumor growth, but the combination therapy showed an antagonistic effect. Similarly, tumor growth was significantly suppressed by β-lapachone alone, and additive effects were noted when combined with gemcitabine, but the therapeutic efficacy was reduced when anti-EMMPRIN antibody was added.
Anti-EMMPRIN antibody with chemotherapy in hypovascular tumors results in antagonistic effects.

7 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Oxygen deprivation leading to hypoxia is a common feature of solid tumours. Under these conditions a signalling pathway involving a key oxygen-response regulator termed the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is switched on. HIF is a transcription factor that, in hypoxia, drives the induction or repression of a myriad of genes controlling multiple cell functions such as angiogenesis, metabolism, invasion/metastasis and apoptosis/survival. Thus, the level of oxygen in a cell dictates the molecular response of cells through modulation of gene expression. Here we review the central role of HIF in cancer progression through the tumour response to hypoxia. Within this context the following aspects will be discussed: i) the mechanism by which oxygen deprivation inhibits two oxygen-sensor hydroxylases, thereby releasing the alpha subunit of HIF from programmed destruction by the ubiquitin-proteasome system and from a lock on its transcriptional activity; ii) the way in which the bi-transcriptional activity of HIF-alpha, which is regulated by the interplay between an oxygen-sensor attenuator and co-activators, determines the repertoire of gene expression; and iii) the role that HIF plays in tumour metabolism, in particular in glycolysis, and consequent acidification of the microenvironment, which influences both cell survival and cell death. Finally, the direct link of HIF to tumourigenesis and metastasis will be investigated and approaches for fighting tumour progression through a better understanding of HIF-mediated modulation of tumour metabolism and cell death will be considered.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lung cancer is one of the most lethal forms of cancer and current chemotherapeutic strategies lack broad specificity and efficacy. Recently, β-lapachone (β-lap) was shown to be highly efficacious in killing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells regardless of their p53, cell cycle and caspase status. Pre-clinical and clinical use of β-lap (clinical form, ARQ501 or 761) is hampered by poor pharmacokinetics and toxicity due to hemolytic anemia. Here, we report the development and preclinical evaluation of β-lap prodrug nanotherapeutics consisting of diester derivatives of β-lap encapsulated in biocompatible and biodegradable poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(d,l-lactic acid) (PEG-b-PLA) micelles. Compared to the parent drug, diester derivatives of β-lap showed higher drug loading densities inside PEG-b-PLA micelles. After esterase treatment, micelle-delivered β-lap-dC3 and -dC6 prodrugs were converted to β-lap. Cytotoxicity assays using A549 and H596 lung cancer cells showed that both micelle formulations maintained NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1)-dependent cytotoxicity. However, antitumor efficacy study of β-lap-dC3 micelles against orthotopic A549 NSCLC xenograft-bearing mice showed significantly greater long-term survival over β-lap-dC6 micelles or β-lap-HPβCD complexes. Improved therapeutic efficacy of β-lap-dC3 micelles correlated with higher area under the concentration-time curves of β-lap in tumors, and enhanced pharmacodynamic endpoints (e.g., PARP1 hyperactivation, γH2AX, and ATP depletion). β-Lap-dC3 prodrug micelles provide a promising strategy for NQO1-targeted therapy of lung cancer with improved safety and antitumor efficacy. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Journal of Controlled Release 12/2014; 200. DOI:10.1016/j.jconrel.2014.12.027 · 7.71 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: PurposeTo assess the early therapeutic effects of anti-EMMPRIN (extracellular matrix metalloprotease inducer) antibody with/without cisplatin or X-ray radiation in head and neck cancer mouse models using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI).Materials and Methods Mice bearing SCC1 (or OSC19) tumor xenografts were treated with anti-EMMPRIN antibody, radiation, cisplatin, or anti-EMMPRIN antibody plus cisplatin (or radiation) for a week (n = 4–5 per group). DCE-MRI was carried out on a 9.4T small animal MR scanner on days 0, 3, and 7, and Ktrans values were averaged in a 0.5-mm-thick peripheral tumor region. Ki67 and CD31 staining were implemented for all tumors after imaging.ResultsThe Ktrans changes of SCC1 and OSC19 tumors treated with anti-EMMPRIN antibody for 3 days were −18 ± 8% and 4 ± 7%, respectively, which were significantly lower than those of control groups (39 ± 5% and 45 ± 7%; P = 0.0025 and 0.0220, respectively). When cisplatin was added, those were −42 ± 9% and −44 ± 9%, respectively, and with radiation, −45 ± 9% and −27 ± 10%, respectively, which were also significantly lower than those of control groups (P < 0.0001 for all four comparisons). In the eight groups untreated (served as control) or treated with anti-EMMPRIN antibody with/without cisplatin or radiation, the mean Ktrans change for 3 days was significantly correlated with the mean tumor volume change for 7 days (r = 0.74, P = 0.0346), Ki67-expressing cell density (r = 0.96, P = 0.0001), and CD31 density (r = 0.84, P = 0.0084).ConclusionDCE-MRI might be utilized to assess the early therapeutic effects of anti-EMMPRIN antibody with/without chemotherapy or radiotherapy in head and neck cancer.J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2015.
    Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 02/2015; 42(4). DOI:10.1002/jmri.24871 · 3.21 Impact Factor
Show more

Similar Publications