ABSTRACT RESUMEN La alimentación del deportista debe responder a las necesidades nutricionales propias de su edad, sexo, condición de salud y físico-deportiva para satisfacer los requerimientos de energía, macronutrientes, vita-minas, minerales y agua para poder llevar a cabo la actividad deportiva preservando la salud, y alcanzan-do un óptimo rendimiento deportivo. Se realizó una revisión en Medline, SPORTDiscus, Science Dierct, SCIRUS, SCIELO, google académico y estrategia bola de nieve. Se utilizó sport AND energy needs AND water needs AND nutritional needs, como ecuación de búsqueda en inglés, y deporte AND necesidades energéticas AND necesidades hídricas AND hidratación AND necesidades nutricionales, como ecuación de búsqueda en español. El artículo trata de ofrecer un conocimiento actual sobre las necesidades energé-ticas y nutricionales del deportista para contribuir a la adquisición y el mantenimiento de las condiciones físicas adecuadas para alcanzar un peso y composición corporal compatibles con la salud y el buen rendi-miento deportivo, mejorar la adaptación y la recuperación tras el esfuerzo, especialmente cuando sea in-tenso, mediante el mantenimiento del balance energético, y el suministro de todos los nutrientes necesa-rios, considerando cuidadosamente aquellos que ayudan al sistema inmunitario y repostar e hidratarse antes, durante y después de cada sesión de entrenamiento y competición. Palabras clave: deporte, necesidades hídricas, energéticas, nutricionales ABSTRACT Food of the athlete must be according to the nutritional needs by age, sex, health condition to meet the re-quirements of energy, macronutrients, vitamins, minerals and water to carry out sports activities preserv-ing health, and achieving optimal athletic performance. A literature review in Medline, SPORTDiscus, Science Dierct, SCIRUS, SCIELO, academic google and snowball strategy. We used sport AND energy needs AND water needs AND nutritional needs as equation search in English and Spanish. The article pro-vides current knowledge about energy and nutritional needs of the athlete to contribute to the acquisition and maintenance of suitable conditions to achieve weight and body composition compatible with good health and sports performance, enhance adaptation and recovery after exercise, by the maintenance of en-ergy balance, and providing all the necessary nutrients, whereas those that help the immune system and hydration before, during and after each training session and competition.

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    ABSTRACT: The reliability of the doubly labeled water method for measuring total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) was measured in six adult women at a 6-mo interval. The contribution of random error to reliability was assessed by repeating each isotopic analysis. Physiologic variation was calculated from the difference between the total variance and the analytic variance. In addition, postabsorptive resting metabolic rate and thermic effect of a meal were measured to partition the physiologic variation in TDEE into its three components. No seasonal effect (summer-winter) in TDEE was detected in these six subjects. The within-subject coefficient of variation for TDEE was 7.8%, of which physiologic variation was 6.4%. Within-subject variation in physical activity was the major source of variation in TDEE. Review of the 16 published studies, in which at least two measurements of TDEE by doubly labeled water were performed in each subject, indicated that the reliability of the method is 7.8%, except under conditions of high water flux. Care, however, must be taken to ensure that the analytic contribution does not inflate this figure in any given laboratory.
    Journal of Nutrition 02/1996; 126(1):348S-354S. · 4.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AINSWORTH, B. E,., W. L. HASKELL, M. C. WHITT, M. L. IRWIN, A. M. SWARTZ, S .J. STRATH, W. L. O'BRIEN, D. R. BASSETT, JR., K. H. SCHMITZ, P. O EMPLAINCOURT, D. R. JACOBS, JR., and A. S. LEON. Compendium of physical activities: an update of activity codes and MET intensities. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 32, No. 9, Suppl., pp. S498-S516, 2000. We provide an updated version of the Compendium of Physical Activities, a coding scheme that classifies specific physical activity (PA) by rate of energy expenditure. It was developed to enhance the comparability of results across studies using self-reports of PA. The Compendium coding scheme links a five-digit code that describes physical activities by major headings (e.g., occupation, transportation, etc.) and specific activities within each major heading with its intensity, defined as the ratio of work metabolic rate to a standard resting metabolic rate (MET). Energy expenditure in MET-minutes, MET-hours, kcal, or kcal per kilogram body weight can be estimated for specific activities by type or MET intensity. Additions to the Compendium were obtained from studies describing daily PA patterns of adults and studies measuring the energy cost of specific physical activities in field settings. The updated version includes two new major headings of volunteer and religious activities, extends the number of specific activities from 477 to 605, and provides updated MET intensity levels for selected activities.
    Medicine &amp Science in Sports &amp Exercise 08/2000; 32(9):S498-S516. DOI:10.1097/00005768-200009001-00009 · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is well known that fluid and electrolyte balance are critical to optimal exercise performance and, moreover, health maintenance. Most research conducted on extreme sporting endeavour (>3 hours) is based on case studies and studies involving small numbers of individuals. Ultra-endurance sportsmen and women typically do not meet their fluid needs during exercise. However, successful athletes exercising over several consecutive days come close to meeting fluid needs. It is important to try to account for all factors influencing bodyweight changes, in addition to fluid loss, and all sources of water input. Increasing ambient temperature and humidity can increase the rate of sweating by up to approximately 1 L/h. Depending on individual variation, exercise type and particularly intensity, sweat rates can vary from extremely low values to more than 3 L/h. Over-hydration, although not frequently observed, can also present problems, as can inappropriate fluid composition. Over-hydrating or meeting fluid needs during very long-lasting exercise in the heat with low or negligible sodium intake can result in reduced performance and, not infrequently, hyponatraemia. Thus, with large rates of fluid ingestion, even measured just to meet fluid needs, sodium intake is vital and an increased beverage concentration [30 to 50 mmol/L (1.7 to 2.9g NaCl/L) may be beneficial. If insufficient fluids are taken during exercise, sodium is necessary in the recovery period to reduce the urinary output and increase the rate of restoration of fluid balance. Carbohydrate inclusion in a beverage can affect the net rate of water assimilation and is also important to supplement endogenous reserves as a substrate for exercising muscles during ultra-endurance activity. To enhance water absorption, glucose and/or glucose-containing carbohydrates (e.g. sucrose, maltose) at concentrations of 3 to 5% weight/volume are recommended. Carbohydrate concentrations above this may be advantageous in terms of glucose oxidation and maintaining exercise intensity, but will be of no added advantage and, if hyperosmotic, will actually reduce the net rate of water absorption. The rate of fluid loss may exceed the capacity of the gastrointestinal tract to assimilate fluids. Gastric emptying, in particular, may be below the rate of fluid loss, and therefore, individual tolerance may dictate the maximum rate of fluid intake. There is large individual variation in gastric emptying rate and tolerance to larger volumes. Training to drink during exercise is recommended and may enhance tolerance.
    Sports Medicine 08/2001; 31(10):701-15. DOI:10.2165/00007256-200131100-00001 · 5.32 Impact Factor