Article

NECESIDADES ENERGÉTICAS, HÍDRICAS Y NUTRICIONALES EN EL DEPORTE

07/2013;

ABSTRACT RESUMEN La alimentación del deportista debe responder a las necesidades nutricionales propias de su edad, sexo, condición de salud y físico-deportiva para satisfacer los requerimientos de energía, macronutrientes, vita-minas, minerales y agua para poder llevar a cabo la actividad deportiva preservando la salud, y alcanzan-do un óptimo rendimiento deportivo. Se realizó una revisión en Medline, SPORTDiscus, Science Dierct, SCIRUS, SCIELO, google académico y estrategia bola de nieve. Se utilizó sport AND energy needs AND water needs AND nutritional needs, como ecuación de búsqueda en inglés, y deporte AND necesidades energéticas AND necesidades hídricas AND hidratación AND necesidades nutricionales, como ecuación de búsqueda en español. El artículo trata de ofrecer un conocimiento actual sobre las necesidades energé-ticas y nutricionales del deportista para contribuir a la adquisición y el mantenimiento de las condiciones físicas adecuadas para alcanzar un peso y composición corporal compatibles con la salud y el buen rendi-miento deportivo, mejorar la adaptación y la recuperación tras el esfuerzo, especialmente cuando sea in-tenso, mediante el mantenimiento del balance energético, y el suministro de todos los nutrientes necesa-rios, considerando cuidadosamente aquellos que ayudan al sistema inmunitario y repostar e hidratarse antes, durante y después de cada sesión de entrenamiento y competición. Palabras clave: deporte, necesidades hídricas, energéticas, nutricionales ABSTRACT Food of the athlete must be according to the nutritional needs by age, sex, health condition to meet the re-quirements of energy, macronutrients, vitamins, minerals and water to carry out sports activities preserv-ing health, and achieving optimal athletic performance. A literature review in Medline, SPORTDiscus, Science Dierct, SCIRUS, SCIELO, academic google and snowball strategy. We used sport AND energy needs AND water needs AND nutritional needs as equation search in English and Spanish. The article pro-vides current knowledge about energy and nutritional needs of the athlete to contribute to the acquisition and maintenance of suitable conditions to achieve weight and body composition compatible with good health and sports performance, enhance adaptation and recovery after exercise, by the maintenance of en-ergy balance, and providing all the necessary nutrients, whereas those that help the immune system and hydration before, during and after each training session and competition.

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