Severe head injury (HI) and the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) epsilon4 allele are risk factors for dementia. The corresponding effect of falls causing HI without explicit traumatic brain injury (TBI) in association with the ApoE epsilon4 is not known.
Altogether 134 persons aged 70 years or older constituted a retrospective population sample, who scored > or =26 in the MiniMental State Examination (MMSE) test at baseline and were clinically examined for dementia 9 years afterward. Fall-related HI causing superficial laceration or bruises or wounds that require suturing were prospectively recorded during the 9-year follow-up. We used Cox regression with age at the diagnosis of dementia as a dependent variable.
Twenty-eight (21%) subjects had falls causing HI without explicit TBI, the ApoE epsilon4 allele was seen in 44 (33%), and clinical dementia was diagnosed in 25 (19%). Adjusted for the baseline MMSE score, sex and educational status, the hazard ratio for subsequent dementia in subjects having falls with HI without explicit TBI and the ApoE epsilon4 allele as compared with those who do not possess these characteristics was 2.70 (95% confidence interval, 1.02-7.16).
According to the results of this small retrospective study, falls with HI without explicit TBI in connection with the ApoE epsilon4 allele is associated with subsequent dementia among older adults.
"Selection bias may partly explain this. Dementia is overrepresented among non-participants of studies among the most elderly subjects . Moreover, dementia is a major reason for admission to long-term care, which restricted follow-up time for falls of some demented persons in the present study. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this prospective study was to examine risk factors of falling in a very old home-dwelling population.
A prospective study of home-dwelling elderly people.
Baseline data were collected by home-nursing staff through postal questionnaires and clinical tests. Data on falls were recorded in telephone interviews every other month during a follow-up of 11 months constituting 494 person years (PY). Negative binomial modeling was used to assess fall risk.
A population sample of home-dwelling subjects aged 85 years or older (n = 555). Main outcome measures. Fall rate and risk factors of falls.
Altogether 512 falls occurred in 273 (49%) subjects, incidence rate 1.03/PY. According to a multivariate model, history of recurrent falling, trouble with vision when moving, use of antipsychotic drug, and feelings of anxiety, nervousness, or fear were independent risk factors for subsequent falls.
Appropriate care of poor vision and feelings of anxiety, nervousness, or fear, and avoidance of use of antipsychotic drugs might be useful in the prevention of falls among the most elderly home-dwellers.
Scandinavian journal of primary health care 03/2009; 27(1):25-30. DOI:10.1080/02813430802588683 · 1.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper aims to systematically review the influence of apolipoprotein E (ApoE) on the effects of potentially modifiable mid and late life risk factors for dementia. Scopus, Medline, PubMed, PsycINFO, and HuGE databases were searched up to November 2008. Two independent reviewers selected 94 articles from 13,122 results. Results suggest the deleterious effect of current smoking is limited only to persons without ApoE epsilon 4 (4 out of 4 studies), ApoE epsilon 4 increases the risk of dementia associated with greater fat consumption, particularly saturated fats (3 out of 4 studies), and increases the protective effect against dementia associated with HRT use (3 out of 5 with one of the non-significant studies suggesting a trend). There was evidence that ApoE does not modify the risk of dementia associated with measures of, and treatments for CVD, other dietary factors, and estradiol levels. There was inconsistent or contradictory evidence for other environmental factors reviewed. There is insufficient evidence for the recommendation of ApoE testing to assist with tailoring risk reduction recommendations for dementia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) constitutes a major cause of mortality and disability worldwide, especially among young individuals. It is estimated that despite all the recent advances in the management of TBI, approximately half of the patients suffering head injuries still have unfavorable outcomes, which represents a substantial health care, social, and economic burden to societies. Considerable variability exists in the clinical outcome after TBI, which is only partially explained by known factors. Accumulating evidence has implicated various genetic elements in the pathophysiology of brain trauma. The extent of brain injury after TBI seems to be modulated to some degree by genetic variants. The authors' current review focuses on the up-to-date state of knowledge regarding genetic association studies in patients sustaining TBI, with particular emphasis on the mechanisms underlying the implication of genes in the pathophysiology of TBI.
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