To study the characteristics of children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Australia, and the assessment and management practices of their pediatricians.
A 2-week practice audit was conducted in a large representative sample of Australian general/community pediatricians. Pediatricians completed an audit form for all patients seen. Demographic details, diagnoses, treatments, and referrals made were recorded for each consultation.
A total of 199 pediatricians completed the audit (response rate 66%). There were 1528 consultations with patients with ADHD. Eighty percent of the subjects were male, and mean age at diagnosis was 9.1 years (range 3-19 years). Most patients (60%) had 1 or more comorbidity identified, although the reported rates of anxiety (8%) and oppositional defiant disorder (15%) were lower than expected. Patients with ADHD were more likely than patients with other diagnoses to be seen in private practice settings (76% vs. 65%; P < .001). Children with ADHD were referred to numerous services at diagnosis, most commonly psychology (32%). Stimulant medication or atomoxetine was prescribed for 40% at initial diagnosis and 80% at continuing consultation. Overall, methylphenidate was the most common medication prescribed (63%), with a minority prescribed dexamphetamine, atomoxetine, or clonidine. Eighteen percent were prescribed 2 or more medications. Medication prescription was predicted by age but not by gender or socioeconomic status.
ADHD is the most frequent diagnosis seen by Australian pediatricians, with some patients being seen into early adult life. Comorbidities appear to be inconsistently identified, with some possibly underdiagnosed. Older children are more likely to be prescribed medication.
"Conversely, unlike other studies, a smaller percentage of children with ADHD and comorbid autism spectrum disorder and encopresis were found in the present study (Clark et al. 1999; Bhatia et al. 1991; Efron et al. 2013). LD was found in 72 % of our sample, which is higher than most studies (Bhatia et al. 1991). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the degree of parental and child mental health in a community sample of children diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder and the effect on family stress prior to and during treatment using a community retrospective questionnaire study. In total 358 questionnaires were returned for analysis where 92 % of children had at least one co-morbid condition and mental health conditions in parents was common. Overall, the Family Strain Index was significantly reduced after commencement of medication (p < 0.0001), but remained higher in families where the children had either externalizing disorders or autism spectrum disorder.
Community Mental Health Journal 08/2014; 51(3). DOI:10.1007/s10597-014-9770-3 · 1.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most frequent neurodevelopmental disorder in children and is sometimes noted retrospectively in young people and adults who are incarcerated. We aimed to investigate juvenile justice encounters in children with and without ADHD.
Between January, 1995, and December, 2010, we did a population-based cohort study in Western Australia. Anonymised linked population data were obtained from the Western Australia Midwives Notification System. 12 831 non-Indigenous Australian children and young people aged 10–21 years, who were diagnosed and treated with stimulant drugs for ADHD and had a record in the Monitoring Drugs of Dependence System (ADHD cohort), were identified and frequency-matched by age, sex, and socioeconomic status to 29 722 non-Indigenous Australian children and young people who had no record in the Monitoring Drugs of Dependence System (controls). Community correction records and incarceration records were retrieved for all participants from Total Offending Management Solutions. Our primary outcome was to compare justice outcomes between children with ADHD and those without this disorder. We compared cohorts by conditional logistic regression analysis.
9939 boys and 2892 girls were diagnosed and treated for ADHD; 22 875 boys and 6847 girls were frequency-matched controls. 792 (8%) boys and 75 (3%) girls with ADHD had a community correction record, compared with 822 (4%) boys and 75 (1%) girls without ADHD. 132 (1%) boys and 11 (<1%) girls with ADHD had an incarceration record, compared with 108 (<1%) boys and five (<1%) girls without ADHD. Compared with controls, boys with ADHD were two and half times more likely to have a community correction record (odds ratio 2·48, 95% CI 2·22–2·76) or an incarceration record (2·63, 2·01–3·44). Compared with their non-ADHD counterparts, girls with ADHD were nearly three times more likely to have a community correction record (odds ratio 2·86, 95% CI 2·03–4·03) and seven times more likely to have an incarceration record (7·27, 2·29–23·08). Boys with ADHD received their first community correction record at a younger age compared with controls (15·9 vs 16·3 years; p=0·0005), but age at first community correction record was similar for girls (16·5 vs 16·4 years; p=0·87). Burglaries and breaking and entering were the most common reason for a first justice record (total 659 [37%]), and this offence was twice as likely in children with ADHD (for boys, odds ratio 2·24, 95% CI 1·90–2·64; for girls, 2·19, 1·40–3·42).
Justice outcomes for boys and girls were more frequent among children and young people treated for ADHD compared with their non-ADHD counterparts. Unlike girls, boys were more likely to offend at a younger age. Early diagnosis and management of children and young people with ADHD might reduce the over-representation of children with this disorder within the juvenile justice system.
National Health and Medical Research Council (Australia), Australian Research Council.
The Lancet Psychiatry 09/2014; 1(4). DOI:10.1016/S2215-0366(14)70302-5
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
To examine the functional status (mental health, academic performance, peer problems) of a community-based sample of children who have attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and non-ADHD controls, and to investigate gender and subtype differences.
Children aged 6 to 8 years were recruited through 43 Melbourne schools, using a 2-stage screening (parent and teacher Conners 3 ADHD index) and case confirmation (Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Version IV; [DISC-IV]) procedure. Outcome measures were mental health disorders (DISC-IV), academic performance (Wide Range Achievement Test 4), and peer problems (Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire). Unadjusted and adjusted linear and logistic regression were used to compare ADHD and non-ADHD controls.
A total of 179 children who have ADHD and 212 non-ADHD controls were recruited. Compared with controls, children who had ADHD had higher odds of externalizing (odds ratio [OR], 11.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.6-21.6; P < .001) and internalizing (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.2-7.2; P = .02) disorders; poorer reading (effect size, -0.66) and mathematics (effect size, -0.69) performance; and more peer problems (P < .001). Boys and girls who had ADHD were equally impaired. Only 17% of children in our ADHD group had been previously diagnosed. Previous diagnosis was higher in the Combined group and for boys.
In their second year of school, children who had ADHD performed worse than controls across all functional domains, yet only a minority had been formally diagnosed with ADHD. Findings highlight the need for earlier diagnosis and intervention.
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