The Discovery of PLK4 Inhibitors: (E)-3-((1H-indazol-6-yl)methylene)indolin-2-ones as Novel Anti-Proliferative Agents.
ABSTRACT The family of Polo-like Kinases is important in the regulation of mitotic progression; this work keys on one member, namely Polo-like Kinase 4 (PLK4). PLK4 has been identified as a candidate anti-cancer target which prompted a search for potent and selective inhibitors of PLK4. The body of the paper describes lead generation and optimization work which yielded nanomolar PLK4 inhibitors. Lead generation began with directed virtual screening, using a ligand based focused library and a PLK4 homology model. Validated hits were used as starting points for the design and discovery of PLK4 inhibitors of novel structure, namely (E)-3-((1H-indazol-6-yl)methylene)indolin-2-ones. Computational models, based on a published X-ray structure (PLK4 kinase domain), were used to understand and optimize the in vitro activity of the series; potent anti-proliferative activity was obtained. The kinase selectivity profile and cell cycle analysis of selected inhibitors are described. The results of a xenograft study with an optimized compound 50 (designated CFI-400437) support the potential of these novel PLK4 inhibitors for cancer therapy.
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ABSTRACT: Previous publications from our laboratory have introduced novel inhibitors of PLK4, a mitotic kinase identified as a potential target for cancer therapy. The search for potent and selective PLK4 inhibitors yielded (E)-3-((1H-indazol-6-yl)methylene)indolin-2-ones which were superseded by the bioisosteric 2-(1H-indazol-6-yl)spiro[cyclopropane-1,3'-indolin]-2'-ones. The later scaffold confers improved drug-like properties and incorporates two stereogenic centers. This work reports the discovery of a novel one-pot double SN2 displacement reaction for the stereoselective installation of the desired asymmetric centers and confirms the stereochemistry of the most potent stereoisomer. Subsequent work keys on the optimization of the oral exposure of nanomolar PLK4 inhibitors with potent cancer cell growth inhibitory activity. A short list of compounds with superior potency and pharmacokinetic properties in rodents and dogs, were studied in mouse models of tumor growth. We conclude with the identification of compound 48 (designated CFI-400945) as a novel development candidate for cancer therapy.Journal of medicinal chemistry. 05/2014;
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ABSTRACT: TTK kinase was identified by in-house siRNA screen and pursued as a tractable, novel target for cancer treatment. A screening campaign and systematic optimization, supported by computer modeling led to an indazole core with key sulfamoylphenyl and acetamido moieties at positions 3 and 5, respectively, establishing a novel chemical class culminating in identification of 72 (CFI-400936). This potent inhibitor of TTK (IC50=3.6nM) demonstrated good activity in cell based assay and selectivity against a panel of human kinases. A co-complex TTK X-ray crystal structure and results of a xenograft study with TTK inhibitors from this class are described.Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry. 06/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Polo-like kinase (PLK)1 is the most studied of the PLK family and is a serine/threonine kinase that plays pivotal roles in many aspects of mitosis and hence its deregulation is prevalent in various malignant tumor types. Areas covered: In this review, the authors discuss the relevancy of PLK1 and other PLK members as oncology targets in light of known roles of these kinases and the observed phenotypic consequence of downregulating their activity, depending on how they are targeted. Furthermore, they also discuss the pathways mutated in cancer that have been shown to enhance sensitivity toward PLK1 inhibitors in the context of tumor types that possess these molecular defects. They also summarize preclinical and clinical investigations that have been undertaken for both ATP and non-ATP competitive inhibitors. Expert opinion: PLKs 2, 3 and 5 are primarily linked with tumor suppressor functions and as PLK1 is the most validated anticancer drug target, selective inhibitors for its activities are most likely to result in effective therapeutics with reduced side effects. In this regard, the polo box domain can be targeted to generate selective inhibitors of PLK1 while preventing inhibition of kinases outside of this family. Recent studies confirming the synthetic lethality of other molecular defects with PLK1 can be exploited to obtain tumor selective apoptosis in p53, KRAS and PTEN mutant cancers.Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery 05/2014; · 2.30 Impact Factor