Frequency Characteristics of Visually Induced Motion Sickness
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to explore the frequency response of visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) for oscillating linear motion in the fore-and-aft axis.
Simulators, virtual environments, and commercially available video games that create an illusion of self-motion are often reported to induce the symptoms seen in response to true motion. Often this human response can be the limiting factor in the acceptability and usability of such systems. Whereas motion sickness in physically moving environments is known to peak at an oscillation frequency around 0.2 Hz, it has recently been suggested that VIMS peaks at around 0.06 Hz following the proposal that the summed response of the visual and vestibular self-motion systems is maximized at this frequency.
We exposed 24 participants to random dot optical flow patterns simulating oscillating fore-and-aft motion within the frequency range of 0.025 to 1.6 Hz. Before and after each 20-min exposure, VIMS was assessed with the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire. Also, a standard motion sickness scale was used to rate symptoms at 1-min intervals during each trial.
VIMS peaked between 0.2 and 0.4 Hz with a reducing effect at lower and higher frequencies.
The numerical prediction of the "crossover frequency" hypothesis, and the design guidance curve previously proposed, cannot be accepted when the symptoms are purely visually induced.
In conditions in which stationary observers are exposed to optical flow that simulates oscillating fore-and-aft motion, frequencies around 0.2 to 0.4 Hz should be avoided.
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ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this study was to provide more reliable and robust norms for the Motion Sickness Susceptibility Questionnaire (MSSQ-Short). Background: The previous norms for the MSSQ-Short involved a small sample over-representing younger female participants, which may provide misleading estimates of susceptibility in the general population. Method: We measured MSSQ-Short scores in a sample of 1,711 members of the general public in New Zealand and Australia. The sample is 6.6 times larger than the original norm sample, and age and gender closely match the general population. Results: Compared with the current study, the original norms under-represent those of high susceptibility by a factor of 3.6, or 0.52 standard deviations. The analysis detected higher levels of susceptibility in females and significantly lower susceptibility in those ages 65 years and older. Conclusion: This study provides the largest sample of MSSQ-Short scores with more representative demographic characteristics of age and gender. Despite the potential for a self-selection bias toward high levels of susceptibility, we argue that the current norms provide more reliable and robust norms than the original sample. Application: These updated norms provide the tools for researchers and designers to evaluate the likely effect of various motion environments on the general population. Robust norm data can inform research, including general motion sickness research and environmental design.Human Factors The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 10/2014; DOI:10.1177/0018720814555862 · 1.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Orientation preference should appear when variable weightings of spatial orientation cues are used between individuals. It is possible that astronauts' orientation preferences could be a potential predictor for susceptibility to space motion sickness (SMS). The present study was conducted to confirm this relationship on Earth by quantifying orientation preferences and simulating SMS in a virtual reality environment. Two tests were carried out. The first was to quantitatively determine one's orientation preference. Thirty-two participants' vision and body cue preferences were determined by measuring perceptual up (PU) orientations. The ratio of vision and body vector (ROVB) was used as the indicator of one's orientation preference. The second test was to visually induce motion sickness symptoms that represent similar sensory conflicts as SMS using a virtual reality environment. Relationships between ROVB values and motion sickness scores were analyzed, which revealed cubic functions by using optimal fits. According to ROVB level, participants were divided into three groups-body group, vision group, and confusion group-and the factor of gender was further considered as a covariate in the analysis. Consistent differences in motion sickness scores were observed between the three groups. Thus, orientation preference had a significant relationship with susceptibility to simulated SMS symptoms. This knowledge could assist with astronaut selection and might be a useful countermeasure when developing new preflight trainings. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.Brain Research Bulletin 01/2015; 113. DOI:10.1016/j.brainresbull.2015.01.007 · 2.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Motion sickness remains bothersome in conventional transport and is an emerging hazard in visual information technologies. Treatment remains unsatisfactory but advances in brain imaging, neurophysiology, and neuropharmacology may provide insights into more effective drug and behavioural management. We review these major developments. Recent progress has been in identifying brain mechanisms and loci associated with motion sickness and nausea per se. The techniques have included conventional neurophysiology, pathway mapping, and functional MRI, implicating multiple brain regions including cortex, brainstem, and cerebellum. Understanding of the environmental and behavioural conditions provocative of and protective against motion sickness and how vestibular disease may sensitize to motion sickness has increased. The problem of nauseogenic information technology has emerged as a target for research, motivated by its ubiquitous applications. Increased understanding of the neurophysiology and brain regions associated with motion sickness may provide for more effective medication in the future. However, the polysymptomatic nature of motion sickness, high interindividual variability, and the extensive brain regions involved may preclude a single, decisive treatment. Motion sickness is an emerging hazard in information technologies. Adaptation remains the most effective countermeasure together with established medications, notably scopolamine and antihistamines. Neuropharmacological investigations may provide more effective medication in the foreseeable future.Current Opinion in Neurology 12/2014; 28(1). DOI:10.1097/WCO.0000000000000163 · 5.73 Impact Factor