We present here the first fully integrated, comprehensive map of the canine genome, incorporating detailed cytogenetic, radiation hybrid (RH), and meiotic information. We have mapped a collection of 266 chromosome-specific cosmid clones, each containing a microsatellite marker, to all 38 canine autosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). A 1500-marker RH map, comprising 1078 microsatellites, 320 dog gene markers, and 102 chromosome-specific markers, has been constructed using the RHDF5000-2 whole-genome radiation hybrid panel. Meiotic linkage analysis was performed, with at least one microsatellite marker from each dog autosome on a panel of reference families, allowing one meiotic linkage group to be anchored to all 38 dog autosomes. We present a karyotype in which each chromosome is identified by one meiotic linkage group and one or more RH groups. This updated integrated map, containing a total of 1800 markers, covers >90% of the dog genome. Positional selection of anchor clones enabled us, for the first time, to orientate nearly all of the integrated groups on each chromosome and to evaluate the extent of individual chromosome coverage in the integrated genome map. Finally, the inclusion of 320 dog genes into this integrated map enhances existing comparative mapping data between human and dog, and the 1000 mapped microsatellite markers constitute an invaluable tool with which to perform genome scanning studies on pedigrees of interest.
"We amplified a panel of 14 microsatellite markers (13 autosomal and one Y chromosome marker). These were FH2001, FH2010, FH2017, FH2054, FH2088, FH2096, FH2422 (Breen et al. ), FH3313, FH3725 (Guyon et al. ), PEZ06, PEZ08, PEZ15, PEZ19 (Halverson J. in Neff et al. ), and the Y-chromosome marker MS41B (Sundquist et al. ). We genotyped n = 477 faecal samples. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract
Background: Emerging evidence suggests that ecological heterogeneity across space can influence the genetic
structure of populations, including that of long-distance dispersers such as large carnivores. On the central coast of British Columbia, Canada, wolf (Canis lupus L., 1758) dietary niche and parasite prevalence data indicate strong ecological divergence between marine-oriented wolves inhabiting islands and individuals on the coastal mainland that interact primarily with terrestrial prey. Local holders of traditional ecological knowledge, who distinguish between mainland and island wolf forms, also informed our hypothesis that genetic differentiation might occur between wolves from these adjacent environments.
Results: We used microsatellite genetic markers to examine data obtained from wolf faecal samples. Our results
from 116 individuals suggest the presence of a genetic cline between mainland and island wolves. This pattern
occurs despite field observations that individuals easily traverse the 30 km wide study area and swim up to 13 km
among landmasses in the region.
Conclusions: Natal habitat-biased dispersal (i.e., the preference for dispersal into familiar ecological environments) might contribute to genetic differentiation. Accordingly, this working hypothesis presents an exciting avenue for future research where marine resources or other components of ecological heterogeneity are present.
Keywords: Canis lupus, Ecological divergence, Marine resources, Niche, Population genetic structure, Traditional
ecological knowledge, Wolf
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polymorphism of 30 canine-derived microsatellites was studied in a group of 200 red foxes kept on 2 Polish farms. 22 out of 30 microsatellites were selected to study association between marker genotypes and body weight (BW), body length (BL), body circumference (BC), tail length (TL), ear height (EH), length of the right front limb (FRLL), length of the right rear limb (RRLL), length of the right front foot (FRFL) and length of the right rear foot (RRFL). A total of 112 alleles and 243 genotypes were found at 22 autosomal microsatellite loci. Three monomorphic loci deemed as uninformative were excluded from the study. The association between marker genotypes and the studied traits was analysed using general linear model (GLM) procedure and least squares means (LSM). Linkage disequilibrium (LD) was estimated to assess non-random association between microsatellite loci. Out of 19 microsatellites studied four markers showed no association with the studied traits, three markers had a significant effect on one trait, and another three markers had significant effect on two traits. Among ten microsatellites with significant effect on four economically important traits (BW, BL, BC, TL) four were associated with two characters: marker FH2613 with BW and BC, marker FH2097withBL and BC, marker ZUBECA6 with BW and BC, whereas marker REN75M10 was associated with BL and TL. The strongest LD (r(2) ranged from 0.15 to 0.33) was estimated between nine loci with significant effect on economically important traits (BW, BL, BC, TL).
"The PCR conditions are provided in Supplementary Information. For coyotes, nine microsatellite loci (FH2001, FH2054, FH2088, FH2137, FH2611, FH2670, FH3725, C09.173 and Cxx.119 – Breen et al. 2001; Guyon et al. 2003; Holmes et al. 1994) based on the methods of Stenglein et al. (2010) and two sex-determining loci (DBX6 and DBY7 – Seddon 2005) were combined in one canid PCR multiplex. For PCR conditions, see Supplemental Information. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Predator species identification is an important step in understanding predator-prey interactions, but predator identifications using kill site observations are often unreliable. We used molecular tools to analyse predator saliva, scat and hair from caribou calf kills in Newfoundland, Canada to identify the predator species, individual and sex. We sampled DNA from 32 carcasses using cotton swabs to collect predator saliva. We used fragment length analysis and sequencing of mitochondrial DNA to distinguish between coyote, black bear, Canada lynx and red fox and used nuclear DNA microsatellite analysis to identify individuals. We compared predator species detected using molecular tools to those assigned via field observations at each kill. We identified a predator species at 94% of carcasses using molecular methods, while observational methods assigned a predator species to 62.5% of kills. Molecular methods attributed 66.7% of kills to coyote and 33.3% to black bear, while observations assigned 40%, 45%, 10% and 5% to coyote, bear, lynx and fox, respectively. Individual identification was successful at 70% of kills where a predator species was identified. Only one individual was identified at each kill, but some individuals were found at multiple kills. Predator sex was predominantly male. We demonstrate the first large-scale evaluation of predator species, individual and sex identification using molecular techniques to extract DNA from swabs of wild prey carcasses. Our results indicate that kill site swabs (i) can be highly successful in identifying the predator species and individual responsible; and (ii) serve to inform and complement traditional methods.
Sally R. Coassin, Byung-Chul Kim, Hans E. Johansson
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