Dysfonction endothéliale : le rôle des bêtabloquants vasodilatateurs dans l’hypertension artérielle et l’insuffisance cardiaque chronique

Annales de Cardiologie et d Angéiologie (Impact Factor: 0.3). 04/2010; 59(2):86-92. DOI: 10.1016/j.ancard.2010.03.001

ABSTRACT The beneficial effects of beta blocking drugs in hypertension and heart failure are well known. However, this class of drugs is pharmacologically heterogeneous. In contrast to the non vasodilator betablockers like propranolol, atenolol or metoprolol which, in hypertension do not decrease intima media thinckness both in arterioles and large arteries, do not decrease arterial rigidity and can induce diabetes mellitus, the betablockers with vasodilating properties are beneficial on these parameters. Moreover, in heart failure, they more markedly decrease left ventricular workload than betablockers without any vascular relaxing effect and the results of SENIOR with nebivolol could suggest the beneficial role of NO on left ventricular dysfunction. Finally, the third generation betablockers, represented by celiprolol, carvedilol and nebivolol, have antioxidant properties which are probably implicated in their endothelial protective effects and in their absence of deleterious metabolic effects, effects which are probably of interest in term of protection of target organs during chronic treatment of hypertensive patients.

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    ABSTRACT: This is a synopsis of presentations made at the American College of Cardiology (ACC) in 2001 summarising recent research developments relating to heart failure. Clinical studies of particular interest to physicians with an interest in heart failure and its prevention are reviewed. The COPERNICUS trial lends further support to the use of the beta-blocker, carvedilol, in severe heart failure and the CAPRICORN trial to its use in patients with post-infarction left ventricular systolic dysfunction. The MIRACLE study reinforces the evidence from three smaller trials that cardiac resynchronisation therapy is an effective treatment for the relief of symptoms in patients with severe heart failure and cardiac dyssynchrony. The STAF trial casts further doubt on the wisdom of cardioversion as a routine strategy for the management of chronic atrial fibrillation. The RITZ-2 trial suggests that an intravenous, non-selective endothelin antagonist is effective in improving haemodynamics and symptoms and possibly in reducing morbidity in severe heart failure. Observational studies in heart failure suggest that a moderate excess of body fat and elevated blood cholesterol may be desirable in patients with heart failure, challenging the current non-evidenced-based vogue for cholesterol lowering therapy in heart failure. The RENAISSANCE and RECOVER outcome studies of etanercept, a tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor analogue that blocks the effect of TNF, were stopped because of lack of evidence of benefit shortly after the ACC.
    European Journal of Heart Failure 07/2001; 3(3):381-7. DOI:10.1016/S1388-9842(01)00149-0 · 6.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Beta-blocking agents improve functional status and reduce morbidity in mild-to-moderate heart failure, but it is not known whether they produce such benefits in severe heart failure. We randomly assigned 2289 patients with symptoms of heart failure at rest or on minimal exertion and with an ejection fraction <25% (but not volume-overloaded) to double-blind treatment with either placebo (n=1133) or carvedilol (n=1156) for an average of 10.4 months. Carvedilol reduced the combined risk of death or hospitalization for a cardiovascular reason by 27% (P=0.00002) and the combined risk of death or hospitalization for heart failure by 31% (P=0.000004). Patients in the carvedilol group also spent 27% fewer days in the hospital for any reason (P=0.0005) and 40% fewer days in the hospital for heart failure (P<0.0001). These differences were as a result of both a decrease in the number of hospitalizations and a shorter duration of each admission. More patients felt improved and fewer patients felt worse in the carvedilol group than in the placebo group after 6 months of maintenance therapy (P=0.0009). Carvedilol-treated patients were also less likely than placebo-treated patients to experience a serious adverse event (P=0.002), especially worsening heart failure, sudden death, cardiogenic shock, or ventricular tachycardia. In euvolemic patients with symptoms at rest or on minimal exertion, the addition of carvedilol to conventional therapy ameliorates the severity of heart failure and reduces the risk of clinical deterioration, hospitalization, and other serious adverse clinical events.
    Circulation 10/2002; 106(17):2194-9. DOI:10.1161/01.CIR.0000035653.72855.BF · 14.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Data suggest that carvedilol possesses antioxidant properties that might provide vascular protection. We sought to compare the effects of carvedilol and metoprolol tartrate on endothelial function and oxidative stress in a head-to-head trial. Thirty-four patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypertension were randomized to receive either carvedilol (n = 16) or metoprolol (n = 18) in addition to their current antihypertensive medications for 5 months. The following variables were measured pre- and posttreatment: blood pressure, fasting glucose and insulin, insulin resistance by homeostasis-model assessment, hemoglobin A1c, lipids, C-reactive protein (CRP), 8-isoprostane, asymmetric dimethylarginine, oxidized LDL cholesterol, ultrasound assessment of brachial-artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), nitroglycerin-induced endothelium-independent dilation (EID), brachial and carotid artery distension, distensibility and compliance, and carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT). Both carvedilol and metoprolol treatment resulted in significant and similar decreases in systolic (P < .05) and diastolic (P < .0001) blood pressure. Compared with metoprolol, carvedilol significantly improved FMD (P < .001). No differences between groups were noted for any of the glycemic or lipid variables except for HDL cholesterol, which significantly decreased (P < .05) in the metoprolol group compared with the carvedilol group. No differences were observed between groups for CRP, the markers of oxidative stress, EID, arterial stiffness, or cIMT. Compared with metoprolol, carvedilol significantly improves endothelial function in patients with T2DM. Changes in glycemic control and oxidative stress do not seem to explain the observed improvements in FMD, which suggests that other mechanisms may be involved.
    American Journal of Hypertension 08/2007; 20(7):777-83. DOI:10.1016/j.amjhyper.2007.01.019 · 2.85 Impact Factor
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