Cytokine responses and progression to active tuberculosis in HIV1-infected Ugandans: a prospective study
ABSTRACT Identifying correlates of immunity or susceptibility to disease promotes understanding of pathogenesis and development of diagnostic tools, treatments, and vaccines. There is evidence that type 1 cytokine responses are associated with protection against tuberculosis, and suppression of type 1, or switching to type 2 responses, with susceptibility, but this has not been studied prospectively. We studied a cohort of 631 HIV-1-infected Ugandan adults. At enrolment we performed whole blood cultures for type 1 (interferon [IFN]-γ, interleukin [IL]-2) and type 2/immunosuppressive (IL-5, IL-10) responses to mycobacterial antigens (purified protein derivative [PPD] and culture filtrate proteins [CFP]). The incidence of tuberculosis was not associated with IFN-γ responses, but was higher among participants with IL-2 responses (adjusted rate ratios [RR]: PPD 3.48; CFP 3.99; P < 0.001). For tuberculin skin test-positive participants, high incidence was also associated with an IL-10 response to PPD (adjusted RR 6.24, P = 0.03); for those with a BCG scar, high incidence was associated with positive IL-5 responses (adjusted RRs: PPD 3.64, P = 0.006; CFP 3.44, P = 0.04). The association with IL-2 production may reflect a response to tuberculous infection or to activating disease; the associations with IL-10 and IL-5 are in keeping with the expected role of immunosuppressive or type 2 cytokines.
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ABSTRACT: One of the challenges faced by the infant immune system is learning to distinguish the myriad of foreign but nonthreatening antigens encountered from those expressed by true pathogens. This balance is reflected in the diminished production of proinflammatory cytokines by both innate and adaptive immune cells in the infant. A downside of this bias is that several factors critical for controlling Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection are significantly restricted in infants, including TNF, IL-1, and IL-12. Furthermore, infant T cells are inherently less capable of differentiating into IFN- γ -producing T cells. As a result, infected infants are 5-10 times more likely than adults to develop active tuberculosis (TB) and have higher rates of severe disseminated disease, including miliary TB and meningitis. Infant TB is a fundamentally different disease than TB in immune competent adults. Immunotherapeutics, therefore, should be specifically evaluated in infants before they are routinely employed to treat TB in this age group. Modalities aimed at reducing inflammation, which may be beneficial for adjunctive therapy of some forms of TB in older children and adults, may be of no benefit or even harmful in infants who manifest much less inflammatory disease.Clinical and Developmental Immunology 05/2013; 2013:781320. DOI:10.1155/2013/781320 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: HIV-infected individuals are significantly more susceptible to tuberculosis (TB) than uninfected individuals. Although it is established that HIV reduces Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific T cell responses, the causes of this dysfunction are not known. We used the cynomolgus macaque model of TB to demonstrate that ex vivo SIV reduces the frequency of M. tuberculosis-specific TNF and IFN-γ-producing T cells within 24 h after infection. In vivo, T cell IFN-γ responses in granulomas from animals with SIV/M. tuberculosis coinfection were lower than SIV-negative animals with active TB. The SIV effects on the inhibition of T cell responses were primarily on APCs and not the T cells directly. Specifically, reductions in the frequency of TNF-producing M. tuberculosis-specific CD4 T cells were caused, at least in part, by SIV-induced production of monocyte derived IL-5.The Journal of Immunology 05/2013; 190(12). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1202043 · 5.36 Impact Factor