Cytokine responses and progression to active tuberculosis in HIV1-infected Ugandans: a prospective study
ABSTRACT Identifying correlates of immunity or susceptibility to disease promotes understanding of pathogenesis and development of diagnostic tools, treatments, and vaccines. There is evidence that type 1 cytokine responses are associated with protection against tuberculosis, and suppression of type 1, or switching to type 2 responses, with susceptibility, but this has not been studied prospectively. We studied a cohort of 631 HIV-1-infected Ugandan adults. At enrolment we performed whole blood cultures for type 1 (interferon [IFN]-γ, interleukin [IL]-2) and type 2/immunosuppressive (IL-5, IL-10) responses to mycobacterial antigens (purified protein derivative [PPD] and culture filtrate proteins [CFP]). The incidence of tuberculosis was not associated with IFN-γ responses, but was higher among participants with IL-2 responses (adjusted rate ratios [RR]: PPD 3.48; CFP 3.99; P < 0.001). For tuberculin skin test-positive participants, high incidence was also associated with an IL-10 response to PPD (adjusted RR 6.24, P = 0.03); for those with a BCG scar, high incidence was associated with positive IL-5 responses (adjusted RRs: PPD 3.64, P = 0.006; CFP 3.44, P = 0.04). The association with IL-2 production may reflect a response to tuberculous infection or to activating disease; the associations with IL-10 and IL-5 are in keeping with the expected role of immunosuppressive or type 2 cytokines.
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ABSTRACT: Several cytokines (IFN gamma, TNF alpha, IL10 and IL6) show an association with either disease localization or dissemination in tuberculosis. There are also reports of involvement of extra-pulmonary sites in tuberculosis with differential clinical severity. However, no comparative study of biomarkers across the disease severity spectrum is available. This was the purpose of the current study. Cytokines (IFN gamma, TNFalpha, IL10 and IL6) secreted in response to a panel of stimulants (PHA, LPS or mycobacterial antigens) in whole blood were determined in eighty-two tuberculosis patients. WHO criteria was applied for stratification of patients according to disease severity: disseminated and or severe disease (EPTB1; N=29); disease localized to lung parenchyma (PTB; N=32) and disease localized to peripheral sites without lung involvement (EPTB2; N=21). Mycobacterial antigens induced IFN gamma/IL10 ratio showed a direct relationship with disease severity ranking (median ratios: EPTB1=0.21; PTB=0.85; EPTB2=7.7) and the highest correlation (Spearman Rank; rho=0.673, p<0.000001). IFN gamma/IL10 ratio also rank ordered clinical severity as it relates to anatomic sites. IFN gamma/IL10 ratio may therefore provide a useful objective marker of disease severity in both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis.Tuberculosis 07/2007; 87(4):279-87. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The sensitivity of the tuberculin skin test is impaired in HIV-1-infected persons. Enzyme-linked immunospot-based detection of immune sensitisation may be less affected. Furthermore, the quantitative response can be related to the CD4 count, potentially improving specificity for active disease. The T-SPOT.TB assay was performed on HIV-1-infected participants, 85 with active tuberculosis (TB) and 81 healthy patients (non-TB). The ratio of the sum of the 6-kDa early secretory antigenic target and culture filtrate protein 10 response to the CD4 count (spot-forming cell (SFC)/CD4) was calculated. Using the manufacturer's guidelines, active TB was diagnosed with 76% sensitivity and 53% specificity. Using an SFC/CD4 ratio of 0.12, sensitivity (80%) and specificity (62%) improved. The quantitative T-cell response increased with increasing smear-positivity in the active TB group (p = 0.0008). In the non-TB group, the proportion of persons scored positive by T-SPOT.TB assay was lower in the group with a CD4 count of <200 cells·mm(-3) (p = 0.029). The ratio of the summed T-cell response to CD4 count improved the diagnostic accuracy of the T-SPOT.TB assay in HIV-1-infected persons, and a ratio of SFC/CD4 of >0.12 should prompt investigation for active disease. A strong association between the degree of sputum positivity and T-SPOT.TB score was found. The sensitivity of the T-SPOT.TB assay in active disease may be less impaired by advanced immunosuppression.European Respiratory Journal 09/2010; 36(3):594-600. · 6.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The current tuberculosis (TB) vaccine, bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), does not provide adequate protection against TB disease in children. Furthermore, more efficacious TB vaccines are needed for children with immunodeficiencies such as HIV infection, who are at highest risk of disease. To characterize mycobacteria-specific T cells in children who might benefit from vaccination against TB, focusing on responses to antigens contained in novel TB vaccines. Methods: Whole blood was collected from three groups of BCG-vaccinated children: HIV-seronegative children receiving TB treatment (n = 30), HIV-infected children (n = 30), and HIV-unexposed healthy children (n = 30). Blood was stimulated with Ag85B and TB10.4, or purified protein derivative, and T-cell cytokine production by CD4 and CD8 was determined by flow cytometry. The memory phenotype of antigen-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells was also determined. Mycobacteria-specific CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses were detectable in all three groups of children. Children receiving TB treatment had significantly higher frequencies of antigen-specific CD4 T cells compared with HIV-infected children (P = 0.0176). No significant differences in magnitude, function, or phenotype of specific T cells were observed in HIV-infected children compared with healthy control subjects. CD4 T cells expressing IFN-gamma, IL-2, or both expressed a CD45RA(-)CCR7(-)CD27(+/-) effector memory phenotype. Mycobacteria-specific CD8 T cells expressed mostly IFN-gamma in all groups of children; these cells expressed CD45RA(-)CCR7(-)CD27(+/-) or CD45RA(+)CCR7(-)CD27(+/-) effector memory phenotypes. Mycobacteria-specific T-cell responses could be demonstrated in all groups of children, suggesting that the responses could be boosted by new TB vaccines currently in clinical trials.American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 03/2010; 182(1):120-9. · 11.04 Impact Factor