Evolución y resultados en el manejo quirúrgico del bocio multinodular
The aims of this study were to: 1. Define our criteria and the results obtained in the surgical management of multinodular goiter (MNG); 2. Compare the results of partial thyroidectomies with those of total thyroidectomies; 3. Determine the incidence of “hidden” carcinomas diagnosed as MNG; 4. Define the most suitable treatment of MNG.
Material and methods
We performed a retrospective study (1999-2005) of 190 patients with MNG. Clinical characteristics, the diagnostic procedures used, surgical indications, the strategy employed, and biopsy results were analyzed. Overall morbidity and mortality were evaluated and statistical comparison of the morbidity- mortality rate between partial and total thyroidectomies was performed.
Depending on the patients, diagnostic procedures consisted of ultrasonography, gammagraphy, computed tomography, and fine-needle aspiration (FNA). Surgical indication was established by compressive syndrome, endothoracic prolongation, rapid growth, suspected malignancy, nodular hyperthyroidism, the endocrinologist’s criteria, and the patient’s wishes. The surgical strategy showed a change in favor of radical surgery. The most common histologic diagnosis was nodular hyperplasia, but 16 carcinomas were “hidden” under a diagnosis of MNG (8.5%). There was no mortality. Morbidity, however, did exist, with the poorest results, showing statistically significant differences, occurring in total thyroidectomies.
1. Ultrasonography and FNA were routinely used for diagnosis. Surgical treatment tended to be radical.We believe that identification of recurrences and parathyroid disease is mandatory; 2. Morbidity was greater with total thyroidectomy; 3. Of patients who underwent surgery for MNG, 8.5% had a hidden thyroid carcinoma; 4. With certain limitations, total thyroidectomy is the most suitable therapy.
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ABSTRACT: Benign multinodular goiter is one of the most common endocrine surgical problems. The appropriate surgical procedure for its effective and safe management is a matter of debate. Though seen by some as an overly hazardous procedure because of the risk of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury and damage to parathyroid function, total thyroidectomy has replaced subtotal thyroidectomy as the procedure of choice, as the latter is associated with significant recurrences. A systemic literature review was undertaken of all available medical literature to evaluate whether total thyroidectomy is the appropriate, safe and effective surgical procedure for benign multinodular goiter. There is consistent level II-IV evidence that subtotal thyroidectomy results in recurrence in up to 50% patients. Incidental thyroid cancers are detected in 3%-16.6% of apparently benign goiters in numerous studies, mostly providing level IV evidence, one third of which would need further surgical treatment after subtotal thyroidectomy. Studies comparing subtotal thyroidectomy and total thyroidectomy, including two each of prospective randomized and prospective nonrandomized ones, provide level II-IV evidence that permanent complication rates associated with subtotal thyroidectomy and total thyroidectomy are not different, although the rate of transient hypocalcemia is higher with total thyroidectomy. On basis of these findings, a grade B recommendation can be made that subtotal thyroidectomy is associated with significant recurrence of goiter, leaves a small number of incidentally detected thyroid cancers inadequately treated, and provides little significant safety advantage over total thyroidectomy. Grade C recommendations can also be made about total thyroidectomy being a safe and effective procedure for benign multinodular goiters in the hands of expert surgeons, based on the extensive level IV evidence, and limited level II and level III evidence, which show that the risk of permanent vocal cord palsy and hypoparathyroidism associated with total thyroidectomy is below the acceptable 2% rate, but not without exceptions. Total thyroidectomy is the procedure of choice for the surgical management of benign multinodular goiter.World Journal of Surgery 08/2008; 32(7):1313-24. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The necessary extent of thyroid resection in benign nodular goiter is under debate. The aim of our study was to compare the long-term outcome of different thyroid resection modes with special interest in the incidence of recurrent nodules and the use of oral thyroid hormone medication. We performed a follow-up examination of 109 patients (23 men and 86 women) having been operated for benign nodular goiter at our department 10 years ago. Unilateral resections and function-preserving resections of at least one thyroid lobe were classified as function-preserving (FP). Total thyroidectomy, Dunhill's operation and bilateral subtotal thyroidectomy were rated as standard-radical (STR). On follow-up, we recorded current oral thyroid hormone medication, thyroid function tests and ultrasound of the neck. Seventy-three patients had FP resection (67%), while 36 were STR-operated (33%). The subsequent medical treatment was performed by dedicated endocrinologists (n = 19), internists (n = 11) or primary-care physicians (n = 59). Twenty patients had no medical attendance. Recurrent nodules were found in 13 cases in the FP group (18.6%) vs. 3 cases in the STR group (2.5%; p < 0.001). In both groups, about 80% of patients used thyroid hormone medication 10 years after operation. There was no advantage in thyroid function tests nor lesser medication in the FP group. The risk for recurrent nodules was significantly higher in the FP than in the STR-operated patients.Langenbeck s Archives of Surgery 04/2008; 394(2):279-83. · 1.89 Impact Factor