Deltoid Ligament Injuries in Athletes: Techniques of Repair and Reconstruction
ABSTRACT Deltoid ligament injuries are a source of valgus and rotational ankle instability and often occur as a result of athletic injury. The anatomy of the medial ankle ligament complex is reviewed and pertinent radiological findings are emphasized. The clinical evaluation of athletes with medial ankle instability as well as methods of repair and reconstruction of the deltoid ligament complex in those patients requiring surgical care are described.
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ABSTRACT: On 34 osteoligamentous ankle preparations the function of the various components of the deltoid ligament has been elucidated by tracing mobility patterns after successive transection of the components in varying sequence. The anterior and posterior talofibular ligaments were included in the study to investigate the interaction between these structures and the deltoid ligament. The tibiocalcaneal and the intermediate tibiotalar ligaments control abduction of the talus. The anterior tibiotalar and talofibular ligaments control plantar flexion, while dorsiflexion is inhibited by the posterior tibiotalar and talofibular ligaments, and partly by the anterior talofibular ligament as well. In combination, the anterior and intermediate tibiotalar ligaments control external rotation, while the intermediate and posterior tibiotalar ligaments control both external and, together with the anterior talofibular ligament, internal rotation of the talus. Isolated, neither the anterior nor the posterior tibiotalar ligament appears to play any major role in ankle stability.Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica 03/1983; 54(1):36-44.
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ABSTRACT: Very little objective data are available regarding medial ankle instability. Several structures contribute to the stabilization of the medial ankle, and, in the case of injury, they are not involved in a uniform way. Explorative, prospective case series. Fifty-one patients (52 ankles; males 27, females 25; age 36.4 [16 to 60] years) were surgically treated because of medial ankle instability. All clinical findings and structural changes, as found by arthroscopy and surgical exploration, were compared with the clinical diagnosis and then addressed for surgical reconstruction. Pain in the medial gutter was noted in all ankles (100%). Arthroscopy verified a clinically expected additional lateral instability in 40 ankles (77%). At 4.43 years (2 to 6.5 years) after surgical reconstruction, the clinical result was considered to be good/excellent in 46 cases (90%), fair in 4 cases (8%), and poor in 1 case (2%). The clinical characteristics of medial ankle instability are a feeling of giving way, pain on the medial gutter of the ankle, and a valgus and pronation deformity of the foot that can typically be actively corrected by the posterior tibial muscle. Arthroscopy was shown to be a very helpful diagnostic tool in verifying medial instability.The American Journal of Sports Medicine 01/2004; 32(1):183-90. · 4.44 Impact Factor
Article: [Chronic ankle instability].[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Chronic ankle instability represents a typical sports injury. After an acute ankle sprain 20-40% of the injured develop chronic ankle instability. From an orthopaedic point of view chronic ankle instability can be subdivided into lateral and medial instability or a combination of both, the so-called rotational ankle instability. From a pathophysiological point of view, chronic ankle instability can be either mechanical with a structural ligament lesion or functional with loss of neuromuscular control. For the physician chronic ankle instability is a difficult entity as the diagnosis is usually complex and the therapy often surgical. This review on chronic ankle instability deals with the pathomechanisms, diagnostics, indications for conservative and surgical treatments, and possible long-term sequelae, such as ligamentous osteoarthritis.Der Unfallchirurg 09/2007; 110(8):691-9; quiz 700. · 0.64 Impact Factor