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Efeitos auditivos decorrentes da exposição ocupacional ao ruído em trabalhadores de marmorarias no Distrito Federal

Revista Da Associacao Medica Brasileira - REV ASSOC MED BRAS 01/2004; 50(4). DOI: 10.1590/S0104-42302004000400029
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    ABSTRACT: Dissertação (mestrado)—Universidade de Brasília, Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde, 2008. O estudo tem como objetivo conhecer o perfil dos trabalhadores de Unidades de Alimentação hospitalares, identificar o entendimento dos trabalhadores sobre potenciais fatores de risco, a utilização de Equipamentos de Proteção Individual, freqüência de atestados médicos, doenças adquiridas no trabalho e acidentes de trabalho e identificar a relação entre a satisfação do trabalhador, as doenças ocupacionais e os acidentes de trabalho. É um estudo descritivo, transversal de natureza exploratória. Foi utilizado questionário com perguntas fechadas e abertas como instrumento de pesquisa. Foram pesquisados trabalhadores de duas Unidades de Alimentação e Nutrição hospitalares, uma com serviço próprio e outra que terceiriza o serviço. A amostra consistiu de 170 trabalhadores de ambas as unidades pesquisados no segundo semestre de 2007. Os dados obtidos indicam entre outros que em ambas o número de mulheres foi superior ao dos homens, que o maior percentual de trabalhadores possui o ensino médio, completo ou não os homens acidentam e que a experiência anterior da maior parte dos pesquisados foi em outros trabalhos não em empresas de alimentação. Mostram-se satisfeitos com as funções exercidas, entretanto insatisfeito com a empresa. Pode-se afirmar que existe relação entre a satisfação e a ocorrência de doença por causa do trabalho: trabalhadores nada satisfeitos apresentaram 15,6 vezes mais chances de apresentarem estas doenças, sendo a prevalência estimada em 88%. Trabalhadores que sofreram acidentes de trabalho tem 2,31 vezes mais chances de adoecerem por causa do trabalho e trabalhadores do setor de estoque, que tiveram doença por causa do trabalho, tem maior probabilidade de sofrer acidente durante o trabalho. Conclui-se que a escolaridade vem aumentando, entretanto a qualificação significa capacitação; existe a necessidade de rever programas de treinamento pois há desconhecimento de potenciais riscos ocupacionais pelos trabalhadores uma vez que os acidentes relatados podem ter ocorrido por inobservância de regras de segurança e aumento da exposição ao risco. ________________________________________________________________________________________ ABSTRACT The study has as objective to learn the profile of workers in hospital´s Food Service, identify the understanding of workers about potential risk factors, the use of Individual Protection Equipment, frequency of medical certificates, acquired diseases at work and occupational accidents and identify the relationship between the satisfaction of the worker, the occupational diseases and accidents at work. This is a descriptive study, cross exploratory. Questionnaires with closed and open questions were used as a research instrument. It was questioned workers of two hospital’s Food and Nutrition Service, one with a own service and another that outsource the service. The sample consisted of 170 workers from both researched units in the second semester of 2007. The obtained results indicate among others that in both, the number of women was superior than that of men, that the greatest percentage of workers has high school, complete or not, that men suffer accidents more and that the previous experience of most was in others works, not in food companies. The researched workers show satisfaction with the performed work, however dissatisfied with the company. It can be affirmed the existence of a relationship between the satisfaction and the occurrence of occupational disease: workers nothing satisfied presented 15.6 times more chances to have these diseases, being the prevalence estimated at 88%. Workers who have suffered accidents at work have 2.31 times more chances to become ill because of work and workers in the stock sector, which had disease because of work, have more probability to suffer accidents during the work. It was concluded that the schooling has been increasing, though the qualification means capacitation; exist the needed to review training programs because there is lack of knowledge about potential occupational hazards by the workers since the reported casualties may have occurred in breach of safety rules and increasing exposure to risk.
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Tinnitus is considered the third worst symptom affecting humans. The aim of this article is to assess complaints by workers with tinnitus exposed to environmental and occupational noise.Methodology: 495 workers went through an epidemiological survey at the Audiology Department of the Center for Studies on Workers' Health and Human Ecology, from 2003 to 2007. The workers underwent tonal and vocal audiometry, preceded by a clinical and occupational history questionnaire. Two-factor ANOVA and Tukey were the statistical tests used. All the analysis set statistical significance at alpha=5%. FINDINGS: There was a higher prevalence of occupational tinnitus (73.7%), a predominance of female domestic workers (65.4%) in cases of environmental exposure, and predominance of male construction workers (71.5%) for occupational exposure. There was a significant difference in workers with hearing loss, who showed a mean speech recognition index (SRI) of 85%, as compared to healthy workers with a mean SRI greater than 93.5%. Signs and symptoms, speech perception, and interference in sound localization with the type of noise exposure (environmental versus occupational) comparisons found no significant differences. CONCLUSION: Studied group's high prevalence of tinnitus, major difficulties in speech recognition with hearing loss and the presence of individuals with normal hearing with both types of exposure justify the importance of measures in health promotion, prevention, and hearing surveillance. The findings highlight the importance of valuing the patients' own perception as the first indication of tinnitus and hearing loss in order to help develop appropriate public policies within the Unified National Health System (SUS).
    Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology 12/2012; 7(1):26.
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    Revista Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia 01/2009; 75(1).

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