Prevalence of overweight/obesity and economical status of schoolchildren.
ABSTRACT To associate the nutritional status of elementary schoolchildren with their gender, age group, and economic status based on a cross-sectional study carried out at public schools in the municipality of Cruzeiro do Oeste, Southern Brazil.
The study was performed in 2010 including 939 schoolchildren aged six to ten years-old. The economical status of the families was classified based on a socioeconomic ranking questionnaire (Brazilian Association of Survey Companies), and the body mass index was calculated. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, and differences between independent groups were verified by Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests, while possible associations were verified by the chi-square test, being significant p<0.05.
The prevalence of obesity in the sample was 8.0%, and overweight, 16.4%. No association was found between the socioeconomic and nutritional status or between the nutritional status and gender.
A high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found in this study, indicating that children of both genders are affected regardless of their economical status and age.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Amauri Aparecido Bassoli de Oliveira, Dec 05, 2014
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ABSTRACT: The industrialized countries around the world are experiencing an epidemic of childhood obesity. The level of fatness of a child at which morbidity increases acutely and/or later in life is determined on an individual basis. Overall, however, childhood obesity substantially increases the risk of subsequent morbidity whether or not obesity persists into adulthood. The genetic basis of childhood obesity has been elucidated to some extent through the discovery of leptin, the ob gene product, and the increasing knowledge of the role of neuropeptides such as pro-opiomelanocortin, neuropeptide Y and the melanocyte-concentrating hormone receptors. Environmental and exogenous factors are the main contributors to the development of a high degree of body fatness early in life. Studies involving twins suggest that approximately 50% of the tendency toward obesity is inherited. There are numerous disorders, including a number of endocrine disorders, such as Cushing's syndrome and hypothyroidism, and genetic syndromes, such as Prader-Labhard-Willi syndrome and Bardet-Biedl syndrome, that can present with obesity. A simple diagnostic algorithm allows for differentiation between primary and secondary obesity. Among the most common sequelae of primary childhood obesity are hypertension, dyslipidemia, back pain and psychosocial problems. It is somewhat ironic that the definition of obesity in childhood is not an easy one. Direct measurements of body fat content, such as hydrodensitometry, bioimpedance, or dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, are useful tools in scientific studies. Body mass index (BMI) is, however, now generally accepted to be a good clinical measure for the definition of obesity in children and adolescents. In preadolescent boys, BMI also relates to muscle mass and should be used for the definition of fat mass with great caution. An increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease in adults has been found in patients whose BMI had been greater than the 75th percentile as adolescents. Therapeutic strategies include psychological and family therapy, modification of lifestyle and behavior, and nutritional education. The role of regular exercise and exercise programs is emphasized, while surgical procedures and drugs used in adult obesity are still not generally recommended for obese children. Obesity is the most common chronic disorder in industrialized countries, and its impact on individual lives as well as on health economics must be recognized by physicians and the public alike. This review aims to increase awareness of the health burden and economic dimension of the epidemic of childhood obesity that is occurring around the globe.Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism: JPEM 02/2001; 14 Suppl 6:1431-40. · 0.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To develop an internationally acceptable definition of child overweight and obesity, specifying the measurement, the reference population, and the age and sex specific cut off points. International survey of six large nationally representative cross sectional growth studies. Brazil, Great Britain, Hong Kong, the Netherlands, Singapore, and the United States. 97 876 males and 94 851 females from birth to 25 years of age. Body mass index (weight/height(2)). For each of the surveys, centile curves were drawn that at age 18 years passed through the widely used cut off points of 25 and 30 kg/m(2) for adult overweight and obesity. The resulting curves were averaged to provide age and sex specific cut off points from 2-18 years. The proposed cut off points, which are less arbitrary and more internationally based than current alternatives, should help to provide internationally comparable prevalence rates of overweight and obesity in children.BMJ Clinical Research 06/2000; 320(7244):1240-3. · 14.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to investigate the nutritional status of schoolchildren studying in the municipal education system of Arapoti, in the state of Paraná, Brazil. A total of 1,647 schoolchildren (842 boys and 805 girls) were studied, aged from 6 to 10 years. Their nutritional status was determined based on anthropometric measurements and expressed as weight for age, weight for height and height for age, according to the NCHS tables. Nutritional status was classifi ed according to the table proposed by Waterlow et al. (1977) as later adapted by Gomez (1983). Descriptive analysis and the chi-square test were employed to evaluate the signifi cance of possible associations between variables. The prevalence ratios of cases of malnutrition and overweight with relation to the age of the schoolchildren were also calculated. Analyses were carried out using Excel for Windows and SPSS version 10.0, adopting p<0.05. It was observed that 59.5% of the boys and 53.2% of the girls were well-nourished. The prevalence of malnutrition among boys was 1.4%, 10.5% and 9.1% for chronic, previous and current malnutrition, respectively. Among the girls, these prevalence rates were 1.4%, 12.2% and 11.1%, respectively. The prevalence of overweight was 9.4% for boys and 10.6% for girls. It was observed that 10.1% of the boys and 11.7% of the girls were obese. No associations were observed between nutritional status and sex or age in the sample studied here. These results indicate a relatively high prevalence of malnutrition and overweight, indicating the co-existence of both problems, which is to a certain extent coherent with the current state of epidemiological transition in Brazil, where older problems (such as malnutrition) and more recent problems (as is the case of obesity) are observed in the country. ABSTRACT</bO presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar o estado nutricional de escolares da rede municipal de ensino de Arapoti, estado do Paraná, Brasil. Foram avaliados 1647 escolares (842 meninos e 805 meninas), com idade entre seis e 10 anos. O estado nutricional foi determinado a partir das medidas antropométricas de peso para a idade, peso para a estatura e estatura para a idade, utilizando como referência as tabelas normativas do NCHS (1977). A classificação do estado nutricional foi realizada por meio da tabela proposta por Waterlow et al. (1977) e adaptada por Gomez (1983). Utilizou-se a análise descritiva e o teste do qui-quadrado para analisar a signifi cância das possíveis associações entre as variáveis. A razão de prevalência dos casos de desnutrição e excesso de peso em relação à idade dos escolares tambémfoi calculada. As análises foram realizadas por meio dos programas Excel para Windows e SPSS versão 10.0, adotando-se p<0,05. Foi observada eutrofi a em 59,5% nos meninos e em 53,2% nas meninas. Quanto à prevalência de desnutrição, nosmeninos, observou-se que a desnutrição crônica, pregressa e atual apresentaram valores respectivamente de 1,4%, 10,5% e 9,1%. Nas meninas, essas prevalências foram de 1,4%, 12,2% e 11,1%, respectivamente. A prevalência de sobrepeso foide 9,4% nos meninos e 10,6% nas meninas. Em relação à obesidade, observou-se que 10,1% dos meninos e 11,7% das meninas apresentavam essa característica. Não foram observadas associações entre o estado nutricional com o sexo e a idade na amostra investigada. Os resultados apontam uma prevalência relativamente alta de desnutrição e de excesso de peso, indicando a co-existência de ambos os problemas, o que é de alguma maneira coerente com o quadro de transição epidemiológica brasileira, onde problemas antigos (como a desnutrição) e problemas mais recentes (caso da obesidade) são observados na realidade do país.