Aspects of lead/acid battery technology 8. Battery oxide
ABSTRACT The basic component of present-day lead/acid battery active materials is a high metallic lead oxide that is made in attrition mills or Barton pots. The composition of this material dictates the process of plate manufacture and confers to the active materials a particle-to-particle bonding from which stems material strength and service life. The operation and control parameters of attrition mills and Barton pots are described. The level of free lead in the oxide dictates the vigour of the subsequent plate curing reaction and the time interval over which a paste remains usable.
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ABSTRACT: Among the many factors that determine and influence the performance of lead/acid batteries, one of the most important, and as yet not fully developed, is how to make the positive active mass more electrochemically reactive. The inherent characteristics of this active mass are the cumulative result of the four precursor stages of its production, namely, the leady oxide, paste mixing, curing and formation procedures. There is evidence to suggest that the method of pasting itself is also influential. Many recent studies have reported progress on techniques to increase active-material utilization, to improve plate conditioning, and to solve the vexagious problem of premature capacity loss. The purpose of this discussion is to focus attention on the role and the importance of leady oxide on battery design and performance. At present, the battery industry makes leady oxide by either the ball-mill or the Barton-pot process. It is difficult to conclude which of the two methods gives the best leady oxide. Each type of leady oxide has its champions but, in general, ball-mill and Barton-pot product both make effective automotive batteries. For deep-cycle batteries, however, many battery companies (especially in Europe and Japan) prefer ball-mill oxide; in North America, the Barton-pot variety is favoured. This investigation examines the present procedures for making leady oxide, the desirable properties of leady oxide, and the influence of the oxide on battery performance. Analysis shows that there is scope for the production of improved leady oxide—by using existing production techniques and/or by the development of new processing technology.Journal of Power Sources 03/1996; DOI:10.1016/0378-7753(96)02296-3 · 5.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Acid absorption is a routine analytical method used in the manufacturing of lead oxide, that is, then further used to manufacture Pb-acid battery electrodes. This study had a new look at the definition of acid absorption being an indication of the acid reactivity of the oxide forming certain lead sulphate-related phases. Quantitative powder X-ray diffraction analysis of the acid reaction products showed there were significant differences in the phases formed that could be related to the amount of acid used in the acid absorption test. The study also showed that there were significant changes in the surface area of the oxides once they had reacted with the acid, where a traditionally slow reacting oxide such as β-PbO would show the greatest increase in material surface area once reacted with the acid. The accuracy of the method used by various laboratories was also studied by comparing the results obtained from two different methods and from three different laboratories. The results showed that there were significant differences between the reported values, and that one should with caution compare acid absorption numbers obtained from different laboratories.Journal of Applied Electrochemistry 02/2009; 40(2):383-391. DOI:10.1007/s10800-009-0007-z · 2.15 Impact Factor