An SREBP-Responsive microRNA Operon Contributes to a Regulatory Loop for Intracellular Lipid Homeostasis

Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture & Life Science, Chonnam National University, Gwanju 500-757, South Korea.
Cell metabolism (Impact Factor: 16.75). 07/2013; 18(1):51-61. DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2013.06.010
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) have evolved as a focal point for linking lipid synthesis with other pathways that regulate cell growth and survival. Here, we have uncovered a polycistrionic microRNA (miRNA) locus that is activated directly by SREBP-2. Two of the encoded miRNAs, miR-182 and miR-96, negatively regulate the expression of Fbxw7 and Insig-2, respectively, and both are known to negatively affect nuclear SREBP accumulation. Direct manipulation of this miRNA pathway alters nuclear SREBP levels and endogenous lipid synthesis. Thus, we have uncovered a mechanism for the regulation of intracellular lipid metabolism mediated by the concerted action of a pair of miRNAs that are expressed from the same SREBP-2-regulated miRNA locus, and each targets a different protein of the multistep pathway that regulates SREBP function. These studies reveal an miRNA "operon" analogous to the classic model for genetic control in bacterial regulatory systems.

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    • "Multiple studies have demonstrated that mirNAs are regulated under metabolic stimuli and conversely control metabolism (Dumortier et al. 2013). The mirNA cluster, mir-183-96-182, has been reported to contribute to a regulatory loop intermediated by SreBP maturation for intracellular lipid homeostasis and is also thought to be regulated by SreBPs (Jeon et al. 2013). Here, we found that mir-183-96-182 cluster levels were significantly enhanced in mouse liver after treatment with PFOA. "
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    ABSTRACT: Perfluoroalkyl acids are widely used in numerous industrial and commercial applications due to their unique physical and chemical characteristics. Although perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is associated with hepatomegaly through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) activation, liver fat accumulation and changes in gene expression related to fatty acid metabolism could still be found in PPARα-null mice exposed to PFOA. To explore the potential effects of PFOA on sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) activity, male mice were dosed with either Milli-Q water or PFOA at doses of 0.08, 0.31, 1.25, 5, and 20 mg/kg/day by gavage for 28 days. Liver total cholesterol concentrations and PFOA contents showed a dose-dependent decrease and increase, respectively. Transcriptional activity of PPARα and SREBPs was significantly enhanced in livers. Protein expression analyzed by Western blotting showed that PFOA exposure stimulated SREBP maturation. Furthermore, proteins blocked SREBP precursor transport, insulin-induced gene 1 (INSIG1) and INSIG2 proteins, as well as a protein-mediated nuclear SREBP proteolysis, F-box and WD-40 domain protein 7, decreased in mouse liver exposed to PFOA. The expression levels of the miR-183-96-182 cluster, which is possibly involved in a regulatory loop intermediated by SREBPs maturation, were also increased in the mouse liver after PFOA exposure. We also observed that PFOA induced lipid content and PPARα in Hepa 1-6 cells after exposure to PFOA for 72 h but SREBPs were not activated in vitro. These results demonstrated that SREBPs were maturated by activating the miR-183-96-182 cluster-SREBP regulatory loop in PFOA-exposed mouse liver.
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    • "MicroRNAs are involved in many processes, including cell survival and death (Hutvagner et al., 2001), lipid and glucose metabolism (Jeon et al., 2013; Kornfeld et al., 2013) and tissue development (Fu et al., 2013). Human preadipocytes are a useful in vitro model for investigating adipocyte proliferation and differentiation at the molecular level (Flier, 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: The liver is a central organ that controls systemic energy homeostasis and nutrient metabolism. Dietary carbohydrates and lipids, and fatty acids derived from adipose tissue are delivered to the liver, and utilized for gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, and ketogenesis, which are tightly regulated by hormonal and neural signals. Hepatic lipogenesis is activated primarily by insulin that is secreted from the pancreas after a high-carbohydrate meal. Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) are major transcriptional regulators that induce key lipogenic enzymes to promote lipogenesis in the liver. Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c is activated by insulin through complex signaling cascades that control SREBP-1c at both transcriptional and posttranslational levels. Carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein is activated by glucose independently of insulin. Here, the authors attempt to summarize the current understanding of the molecular mechanism for the transcriptional regulation of hepatic lipogenesis, focusing on recent studies that explore the signaling pathways controlling SREBPs and ChREBP.
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