Elucidating Internucleosome Interactions and the Roles of Histone Tails

Department of Physics, George Washington University, Washington, DC.
Biophysical Journal (Impact Factor: 3.97). 07/2013; 105(1):194-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.bpj.2013.05.021
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The nucleosome is the first level of genome organization and regulation in eukaryotes where negatively charged DNA is wrapped around largely positively charged histone proteins. Interaction between nucleosomes is dominated by electrostatics at long range and guided by specific contacts at short range, particularly involving their flexible histone tails. We have thus quantified how internucleosome interactions are modulated by salts (KCl, MgCl2) and histone tail deletions (H3, H4 N-terminal), using small-angle x-ray scattering and theoretical modeling. We found that measured effective charges at low salts are ∼1/5th of the theoretically predicted renormalized charges and that H4 tail deletion suppresses the attraction at high salts to a larger extent than H3 tail deletion.

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Available from: Steven C Howell, Sep 27, 2015
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    • "In buffer containing 200 mM NaCl, NCPs are compact with DNA predominantly wrapped around the histone core. At lower ionic strength, repulsive forces are detected between NCPs in the concentration range of interest, leading to inter-particle interference effects that distort the SAXS profiles at the lowest angles (as observed in (35)). Increasing concentrations of NaCl (from 0.2 to 2 M) populate intermediate species similar to those transiently observed at physiological ionic strength (0.05–0.1 M monovalents) (5,12). "
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    ABSTRACT: The modulation of DNA accessibility by nucleosomes is a fundamental mechanism of gene regulation in eukaryotes. The nucleosome core particle (NCP) consists of 147 bp of DNA wrapped around a symmetric octamer of histone proteins. The dynamics of DNA packaging and unpackaging from the NCP affect all DNA-based chemistries, but depend on many factors, including DNA positioning sequence, histone variants and modifications. Although the structure of the intact NCP has been studied by crystallography at atomic resolution, little is known about the structures of the partially unwrapped, transient intermediates relevant to nucleosome dynamics in processes such as transcription, DNA replication and repair. We apply a new experimental approach combining contrast variation with time-resolved small angle X-ray scattering (TR-SAXS) to determine transient structures of protein and DNA constituents of NCPs during salt-induced disassembly. We measure the structures of unwrapping DNA and monitor protein dissociation from Xenopus laevis histones reconstituted with two model NCP positioning constructs: the Widom 601 sequence and the sea urchin 5S ribosomal gene. Both constructs reveal asymmetric release of DNA from disrupted histone cores, but display different patterns of protein dissociation. These kinetic intermediates may be biologically important substrates for gene regulation.
    Nucleic Acids Research 07/2014; 42(13). DOI:10.1093/nar/gku562 · 9.11 Impact Factor
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    • "For sample-to-sample comparison, signals were matched at q = 0.04-0.08 Å-1 to control for slight differences in concentration; this region is known to be free of interparticle interference [36]. Analysis was done using RAW [37] and in-house MATLAB (The MathWorks, Natick, MA) functions. "
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    ABSTRACT: Using a combination of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements we have determined the role of the H3 and H4 histone tails, independently, in stabilizing the nucleosome DNA terminal ends from unwrapping from the nucleosome core. We have performed solution scattering experiments on recombinant wild-type, H3 and H4 tail-removed mutants and fit all scattering data with predictions from PDB models and compared these experiments to complementary DNA-end FRET experiments. Based on these combined SAXS and FRET studies, we find that while all nucleosomes exhibited DNA unwrapping, the extent of this unwrapping is increased for nucleosomes with the H3 tails removed but, surprisingly, decreased in nucleosomes with the H4 tails removed. Studies of salt concentration effects show a minimum amount of DNA unwrapping for all complexes around 50-100mM of monovalent ions. These data exhibit opposite roles for the positively-charged nucleosome tails, with the ability to decrease access (in the case of the H3 histone) or increase access (in the case of the H4 histone) to the DNA surrounding the nucleosome. In the range of salt concentrations studied (0-200mM KCl), the data point to the H4 tail-removed mutant at physiological (50-100mM) monovalent salt concentration as the mononucleosome with the least amount of DNA unwrapping.
    PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e78587. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0078587 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The TATA binding protein (TBP) is a critical transcription factor used for nucleating assembly of the RNA polymerase II machinery. TBP binds TATA box elements with high affinity and kinetic stability and in vivo is correlated with high levels of transcription activation. However, since most promoters use less stable TATA-less or TATA-like elements, while also competing with nucleosome occupancy, further mechanistic insight into TBP's DNA binding properties and ability to access chromatin is needed. Using bulk and single-molecule FRET, we find that TBP binds a minimal consensus TATA box as a two-state equilibrium process, showing no evidence for intermediate states. However, upon addition of flanking DNA sequence, we observe non-specific cooperative binding to multiple DNA sites that compete for TATA-box specificity. Thus, we conclude that TBP binding is defined by a branched pathway, wherein TBP initially binds with little sequence specificity and is thermodynamically positioned by its kinetic stability to the TATA box. Furthermore, we observed the real-time access of TBP binding to TATA box DNA located within the DNA entry–exit site of the nucleosome. From these data, we determined salt-dependent changes in the nucleosome conformation regulate TBP's access to the TATA box, where access is highly constrained under physiological conditions, but is alleviated by histone acetylation and TFIIA.
    Nucleic Acids Research 05/2014; 42(12). DOI:10.1093/nar/gku423 · 9.11 Impact Factor
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