Nasal and Vaginal Vaccinations Have Differential Effects on Antibody Responses in Vaginal and Cervical Secretions in Humans
ABSTRACT Sexually transmitted diseases are a major health problem worldwide, but there is still a lack of knowledge about how to induce an optimal immune response in the genital tract of humans. In this study we vaccinated 21 volunteers nasally or vaginally with the model mucosal antigen cholera toxin B subunit and determined the level of specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG antibodies in vaginal and cervical secretions as well as in serum. To assess the hormonal influence on the induction of antibody responses after vaginal vaccination, we administered the vaccine either independently of the stage in the menstrual cycle or on days 10 and 24 in the cycle in different groups of subjects. Vaginal and nasal vaccinations both resulted in significant IgA and IgG anti-cholera toxin B subunit responses in serum in the majority of the volunteers in the various vaccination groups. Only vaginal vaccination given on days 10 and 24 in the cycle induced strong specific antibody responses in the cervix with 58-fold IgA and 16-fold IgG increases. In contrast, modest responses were seen after nasal vaccination and in the other vaginally vaccinated group. Nasal vaccination was superior in inducing a specific IgA response in vaginal secretions, giving a 35-fold increase, while vaginal vaccination induced only a 5-fold IgA increase. We conclude that a combination of nasal and vaginal vaccination might be the best vaccination strategy for inducing protective antibody responses in both cervical and vaginal secretions, provided that the vaginal vaccination is given on optimal time points in the cycle.
Article: Antigen recognition in the female reproductive tract. II. Endocytosis of horseradish peroxidase by Langerhans cells in murine vaginal epithelium.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that dendritic cells in the murine vaginal epithelium at diestrus and metestrus can endocytose intravaginally administered soluble protein tracers, but the identity of the dendritic cells was not established. In the investigation reported here, we used a combination of histochemistry and transmission electron microscopy to study the endocytosis of exogenous horseradish peroxidase by vaginal dendritic cells and to identify these cells as Langerhans' cells on the basis of their cellular associations, ultrastructural morphology, and the presence of Langerhans' cell granules.Biology of Reproduction 09/1991; 45(2):261-5. · 4.01 Impact Factor
Article: Normal uterine cervix: characterization of isolated lymphocyte phenotypes and immunoglobulin secretion.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Isolation of viable cervical lymphocyte populations and characterization of their function in healthy tissue is necessary to understand immunity in the genital tract. Normal, cervical tissue was digested using a multi-enzymatic digestion procedure. Lymphocytes were characterized using FACS analysis and ELISPOT analysis for immunoglobulin secreting cells. Following the digestion procedure, 0.16 x 10(6) +/- 0.8 cells/g of tissue with a viability of 90-98% were isolated from normal cervical tissue. FACS analysis determined that B lymphocytes were the predominant cell type in normal cervical tissue representing a significantly higher percentage than that found in peripheral blood (P = 0.015). T lymphocytes and NK cells represented a significantly lower percentage than that found in peripheral blood (P = 0.0001 and 0.026, respectively). The largest percentage of immunoglobulin secreting cells isolated were secreting IgG followed by IgA. A limited number of IgM secreting cells were detected. IgA2 secreting cells represented 34.46 +/- 4.6% of the total number of IgA plasma cells. These studies represent the first analysis of viable mononuclear cells isolated from normal cervical tissue. The results form a baseline from which it will now be possible to compare changes that occur at the cervical squamocolumnar junction in response to infection or neoplasia.American journal of reproductive immunology (New York, N.Y.: 1989) 11/1995; 34(4):241-7. · 3.05 Impact Factor